Scientific miracles of the Qur’an :)

THE SCIENTIFIC MIRACLES OF THE QUR’AN

THE FORMATION OF PETROL
THE RELATIVITY OF TIME
CREATION IN SIX DAYS
THE TRUTH OF DESTINY
DUALITY IN CREATION
SUB-ATOMIC PARTICLES
BLACK HOLES
PULSARS: PULSATING STARS
THE STAR SIRIUS
LIGHT AND DARK

THE FORMATION OF PETROL

Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High: He Who created and moulded; He Who determined and guided; He Who brings forth green pasture, then makes it blackened stubble. (Qur’an, 87:1-5)

As we know, petrol forms from the remains of plants and animals in the sea. Once these have decayed on the sea bed after millions of years, all that is left are oily substances. These, under layers of mud and rock, then turn into petrol and gas. Movements in the Earth’s crust sometimes lead to the sea petrifying and to the rocks containing petrol being buried thousands of metres deep. The petrol that forms sometimes leaks through the pores in the rock layers from several kilometres down, and rises to the surface, where it vaporises (turns into gas), leaving a mass of bitumen behind.

The three elements identified in the first four verses of Surat al-A’la parallel the formation of petroleum. It is quite likely that the term “almaraa,” meaning pasture or meadow, refers to the organically- based substances in the formation of petroleum. The second word of note in the verse is “ahwa,” used to describe blackish-green, greenish-black, dark or sooty colours. This word can be thought of as describing the waste plant matter accumulated underground gradually turning black, since these words are supported by a third word, “ghuthaan.” The word “ghuthaan” translated as stubble, can also mean flood-water plants, plants brought together by waste matter being collected and dispersed around valleys, rubbish, leaves or foam. In addition to the connotation of “vomiting out” implied in the word, it may also be translated as “to flood forth vomited matter,” and describes the way that the earth “vomits” forth petroleum. In fact, in the light of the formation of petroleum, the way it emerges, its foam-like appearance and its colour, one can better see with what wisdom were employed the words in the verses.

As has been discussed, the plant in the verse turning into a dark and viscous liquid bears a strong resemblance to the formation of petroleum. The description of such a formation over many years, at a time when the formation of petroleum was unknown, is without doubt another proof that the Qur’an is the revelation of Allah.

THE RELATIVITY OF TIME

Today, the relativity of time is a proven scientific fact. This was revealed by Einstein’s theory of relativity during the early part of the 20th century. Until then, it was not known that time was relative, nor that it could change according to the circumstances. Yet, the renowned scientist Albert Einstein proved this fact by discovering the theory of relativity. He showed that time is dependent on mass and velocity.

However, the Qur’an had already included information about time’s being relative! Some verses about the subject read:

… A day with your Lord is equivalent to a thousand years in the way you count. (Qur’an, 22:47)

He directs the whole affair from heaven to earth. Then it will again ascend to Him on a Day whose length is a thousand years by the way you measure. (Qur’an, 32:5)

The angels and the Spirit ascend to Him in a day whose length is fifty thousand years. (Qur’an, 70:4)

The fact that the relativity of time is so definitely mentioned in the Qur’an, which began to be revealed in 610, is more evidence that it is a divine book.

CREATION IN SIX DAYS

Your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days and then settled Himself firmly on the Throne… (Qur’an, 7:54)

One example of the harmony between the Qur’an and modern science is the subject of the age of the universe. Cosmologists estimate the age of the universe as 16-17 billion years. The Qur’an states that the entire universe was created in six days. These two time frames, which may seem contradictory, are actually surprisingly compatible. In fact, both these figures concerning the age of the universe are correct. In other words, the universe was created in six days, as revealed in the Qur’an, and this period corresponds to 16-17 billion years in the way that we experience time.

In 1915 Einstein proposed that time was relative, that the passage of time altered according to space, the speed of the person travelling and the force of gravity at that moment. Bearing in mind these differences in the passage of time, the period of time in which the universe was created as revealed in seven different verses of the Qur’an is actually highly compatible with scientists’ estimations. The six-day period revealed in the Qur’an can be thought of as six periods. Because, taking into account the relativity of time, a “day” refers only to a 24-hour period experienced on Earth under current conditions. Elsewhere in the universe, however, at another time and under other conditions, a “day” could refer to a much longer period of time. Indeed, the word “ayyamin” in the period of six days (sittati ayyamin) in these verses (Qur’an 32:4, 10:3, 11:7, 25:59, 57:4, 50:38, and 7:54) means not only “days,” but also “age, period, moment, term.”

In the first period of the universe, the passage of time took place much faster than that with which we are familiar today. The reason for this is that, at the moment of the Big Bang, our universe was compressed into a very small point. The expansion of the universe and increase in its volume ever since the moment of that explosion has extended the borders of the universe to millions of light years. Indeed, the stretching of space ever since that moment has had very important ramifications for universal time.

The energy at the moment of the Big Bang slowed down the flow of time 1012 (one million million) times. When the universe was created the speed of universal time was higher up to a million million times, as time is experienced today. In other words, a million million minutes on Earth is the equivalent of just one minute in universal time.

When a six-day period of time is calculated according to the relativity of time, it equates to six million million (six trillion) days. That is because universal time flows a million million times faster than time on Earth. Calculated in terms of years, 6 trillion days equates to approximately 16.427 billion years. This is within the estimated range for the age of the universe.

6,000,000,000, 000 days/365.25 = 16.427104723 billion years

Allah, there is no god but Him, the Living, the Self-Sustaining. He is not subject to drowsiness or sleep. Everything in the heavens and the earth belongs to Him. Who can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them but they cannot grasp any of His knowledge save what He wills. His Footstool encompasses the heavens and the earth and their preservation does not tire Him. He is the Most High, the Magnificent.
(Qur’an, 2:255)

On the other hand, each of the six days of creation equates to very different periods, as we perceive time. The reason for this is that the speed of the passage of time declines in proportion to the expansion of the universe. Ever since the Big Bang, as the size of the universe doubled, so the passage of time halved. As the universe grew, the speed at which the universe doubled increasingly slowed down. This rate of expansion is a scientific fact acknowledged the world over and described in the text book The Fundamentals of Physical Cosmology. When we calculate every day of creation in terms of Earth time, the following situation emerges:

  • Looked at from the moment when time began, the first day of creation (first phase) lasted 24 hours. This period, however, is the equivalent of 8 billion years in Earth terms.
  • The second day of creation (second phase) lasted 24 hours. This, however, lasted half as long, in our terms, as the preceding day, in other words 4 billion years.
  • The third day (third phase) lasted half as long as the second day, in other words 2 billion years.
  • The fourth day (fourth phase) lasted 1 billion years.
  • The fifth day (fifth phase) lasted 500 million years.
  • And the sixth day (sixth phase) lasted 250 million years.
  • Conclusion: When the six days of creation, in other words the six phases, are added together in Earth terms, the resulting figure is 15 billion 750 million years. This figure displays an enormous parallel with modern-day estimations.

This conclusion is one of the facts revealed by 21st century science. Science has once again confirmed a fact revealed in the Qur’an 1,400 years ago. This harmony between the Qur’an and science is one of the miraculous proofs that the Qur’an is the revelation of Allah, the Creator, the Omniscient.

THE TRUTH OF DESTINY

But you will not will unless Allah wills. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise. (Qur’an, 76:30)

As a result of experiments he performed in 1973, Professor Benjamin Libet, a neurophysiologist at the University of California, revealed that all our decisions and choices are set out beforehand, and that consciousness only comes into play half a second after everything has been determined.44 This is interpreted by other neurophysiologists as meaning that we actually live in the past and that our consciousness is like a monitor which shows us everything half a second later.

Therefore, none of the experiences we perceive are in real time, but are delayed by up to half a second from the real events themselves. Libet carried out his research by making use of the fact that brain surgery can be performed without the use of narcosis, in other words while the subject is fully conscious. Libet stimulated the brains of his subjects with small electrical currents, and when they experienced a perception that their hands had been touched the subjects said that they had felt that “touch” almost half a second before. As a result of his measurements, Libet arrived at the following conclusion: All perceptions are normally transmitted to the brain. As these are subconsciously evaluated and interpreted, the ego is unaware of anything. The information that appears before our minds, in other words that we can be aware of, is transmitted to the cortex, the seat of consciousness, after a certain delay.45

The conclusion from this may be summarised as follows: The decision to move a muscle takes place before that decision reaches the consciousness. There is always a delay between a neurological or perceptual process and our becoming aware of the thought, feeling, perception or movement it represents. To put it another way, we can only be aware of a decision after that decision has been taken.

In Professor Libet’s experiments, this delay varies between 350 and 500 milliseconds, although the conclusion that emerges is in no way dependent upon those figures. Because, according to Libet, whatever the length of that delay-it makes no difference whether it is great or small, whether it lasts an hour or a microsecond- our material life is always in the past. This demonstrates that every thought, emotion, perception or movement happens before reaching our consciousness, and that proves that the future is entirely outside our control.46

In other experiments, Professor Libet left the choice of when the subjects would move their fingers up to them. The brains of the subjects were monitored at the moment their fingers moved, and it was observed that the relevant brain cells went into action before the subjects actually took the decision. To put it another way, the command “do!” reaches the individual, and the brain is readied to perform the action; the individual only becomes aware of this half a second later. He or she does not take a decision to act and then performs that action, but rather performs an action predetermined for him or her. Yet, the brain makes an adjustment, removing any recognition that the individual is actually living in the past. For that reason, at the moment we refer to as “now,” we are actually living something determined in the past. As already discussed, these studies manifest the fact that everything happens by the will of Allah, as revealed in Surat al-Insan 30.

DUALITY IN CREATION

Glory be to Him Who created all the pairs: from what the earth produces and from themselves and from things unknown to them. (Qur’an, 36:36)


There are antimatter equivalents of all the basic particles in the universe. Antimatters possess the same mass but carry opposite charges. For that reason, when matter and antimatter make contact they disappear by turning into energy.

While “male and female” is equivalent to the concept of “pair,” “things unknown to them,” as expressed in the Qur’an, bears a broader meaning. Indeed, we encounter one of the meanings pointed to in the verse in the present day. The British physicist Paul Dirac, who discovered that matter was created in pairs, won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1933. This finding, known as “parity,” revealed the duality known as matter and anti-matter. Anti-matter bears the opposite characteristics to matter. For instance, contrary to matter, anti-matter electrons are positive and protons negative. This fact is expressed in a scientific source as follows:

… every particle has its antiparticle of opposite charge… [T]he uncertainty relation tells us that pair creation and pair annihilation happen in the vacuum at all times, in all places.47

Another example of duality in creation is plants. Botanists only discovered that there is a gender distinction in plants some 100 years ago.48 Yet, the fact that plants are created in pairs was revealed in the following verses of the Qur’an 1,400 years ago:

It is Allah Who created the heavens with no support-you can see them-and cast firmly embedded mountains on the earth so that it would not move under you, and scattered about in it creatures of every kind. And We send down water from the sky and make every generous plant grow in it, in pairs. (Qur’an, 31:10)

It is He Who made the earth a cradle for you and threaded pathways for you through it and sent down water from the sky by which We have brought forth diverse pairs of plants. (Qur’an, 20:53)

SUB-ATOMIC PARTICLES


1. Ordinary matter consists of atoms bound together by electromagnetic force to form molecules. These molecules come together to form solids, liquids and gasses.

2. Atoms consist of a dense nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. Electromagnetic force holds the nucleus and electrons together.

3. The nucleus consists of protons and neutrons held together by a powerful nuclear force.

4.Protons and neutrons consist of three quarks each and are held together by powerful nuclear force.

Following the development of the atomic theory of the Greek philosopher Democritus, people used to believe that matter consisted of minute, indivisible and indestructible particles known as atoms. However, advances in the study of atoms have refuted this notion. At the present time, modern science has revealed that the atom, previously regarded as the smallest particle, can actually be split. This fact only emerged in the last century, but was revealed in the Qur’an 1,400 years ago:

… He is the Knower of the Unseen, Whom not an atom’s weight eludes, either in the heavens or in the earth; nor is there anything smaller or larger than that which is not in a Clear Book. (Qur’an, 34:3)

… Not even an atom’s weight eludes your Lord, either on earth or in heaven. Nor is there anything smaller than that, or larger, which is not in a Clear Book. (Qur’an, 10:61)

This verse refers to “atom” and smaller particles still.

Up until 20 years ago, it was believed that the smallest particles were the protons and neutrons which comprise the atom. Very recently, however, even smaller particles of which these themselves consist were discovered. A specialised branch of physics, called “particle physics,” emerged to study these “sub-particles” and their particular behaviour. Particle physics research has revealed that the protons and neutrons which comprise the atoms actually consist of sub-particles known as quarks. The size of these quarks, the basic components of protons, whose small size is beyond human conception, is astonishing: 10-18 (0.0000000000000000 01 of a metre).49

Another point worthy of note is that these verses draw particular attention to the weight of the atom. The word “mithqal,” in the expression “mithqali tharratin” (an atom’s weight) in the above verses, means weight. In fact, it has been discovered that the protons, neutrons and electrons which form the atom are also compounds which give the atom its weight. Therefore, it is yet another scientific miracle of the Qur’an that attention is drawn instead to the weight of the atom and not its size or any other feature.

BLACK HOLES

The 20th century saw a great many new discoveries regarding celestial phenomena in the universe. One of these entities, which has only recently been encountered, is the Black Hole. These are formed when a star which has consumed all its fuel collapses in on itself, eventually turning into a black hole with infinite density and zero volume and an immensely powerful magnetic field. We are unable to see black holes even with the most powerful telescope, because their gravitational pull is so strong that light is unable to escape from them. However, such a collapsed star can be perceived by means of the effect it has on the surrounding area. In Surat al-Waqi’a, Allah draws attention this matter in this way, by swearing upon the position of stars:

And I swear by the stars’ positions-and that is a mighty oath if you only knew. (Qur’an, 56:75-76)

The term “black hole” was first employed in 1969 by the American physicist John Wheeler. Previously, we imagined that we were able to see all the stars. However, it later emerged that there were stars in space whose light we were unable to perceive. Because, the light of these collapsed stars disappears. Light cannot escape from a black hole because it is such a high concentration of mass in a small space. The enormous gravitation captures even the fastest particles, i.e. the photons. For example, the final stage of a typical star, three times the mass of the Sun, ends after its burning out and its implosion as a black hole of only 20 kilometres in diameter! Black holes are “black,” i.e. veiled from direct observation. They nevertheless reveal themselves indirectly, by the tremendous suction which their gravitational force exerts on other heavenly bodies. As well as depictions of the Day of Judgement, the verse below may also be pointing to this scientific discovery about black holes:

When the stars are extinguished, (Qur’an, 77:8)

Moreover, stars of great mass also cause warps to be perceived in space. Black holes, however, do not just cause warps in space but also tear holes in it. That is why these collapsed stars are known as black holes. This fact may be referred to in the verse about stars, and this is another important item of information demonstrating that the Qur’an is the Word of Allah:

[I swear] by Heaven and the Tariq! And what will convey to you what the Tariq is? The Star Piercing [the darkness]! (Qur’an, 86:1-3)

PULSARS: PULSATING STARS

[I swear] by Heaven and the Tariq! And what will convey to you what the Tariq is? The Star Piercing [the darkness]! (Qur’an, 86:1-3)


Pulsars are the remains of extinguished stars which emit very powerful, pulse-like radio waves and which revolve very rapidly around their own axes. It has been calculated that there are more than 500 pulsars in the Milky Way, of which our Earth is a part.

The word “Tariq,” name of the Sura 86, comes from the root “tarq,” whose basic meaning is that of striking hard enough to produce a sound, or hitting. Bearing in mind the word’s possible meaning as “beating,” “striking hard,” our attention may be being drawn in this sura to an important scientific fact. Before analysing this information, let us look at the other words employed in the verse to describe these stars. The term “alttariqi” in the above verse means a star that pierces the night, that pierces the darkness, born at night, piercing and moving on, beating, striking, or sharp star. Furthermore, the term “waal” draws attention to the things being sworn on-the heaven and the Tariq.

Through research carried out by Jocelyn Bell Burnell, at Cambridge University in 1967, a regular radio signal was identified. Until that time, however, it was not known that that there was a heavenly body that could be the source of regular pulse or beating rather like that of the heart. In 1967, however, astronomers stated that, as matter grows denser in the core as it revolves around its own axis, the star’s magnetic field also grows stronger, and thus gives rise to a magnetic field at its poles 1 trillion times stronger than that of Earth. They realised that a body revolving so fast and with such a powerful magnetic field emits rays consisting of very powerful radio waves in a conic form at every revolution. Shortly afterwards, it was also realised that the source of these signals is the rapid revolution of neutron stars. These newly discovered neutron stars are known as “pulsars.” These stars, which turn into pulsars through supernova explosions, are of the greatest mass, and are the brightest and fastest moving bodies in the universe. Some pulsars revolve 600 times a second.50

The word “pulsar” comes from the verb to pulse. According to the American Heritage Dictionary, the word means to pulsate, to beat. Encarta Dictionary defines it as to beat rhythmically, to move or throb with a strong regular rhythm. Again, according to the Encarta Dictionary, the word “pulsate,” which comes from the same root, means to expand and contract with a strong regular beat.

Following that discovery, it was realised that the phenomenon described in the Qur’an as “tariq,” beating, bore a great similarity to the neutron stars known as pulsars.

Neutron stars form as the nuclei of super giant stars collapse. The highly compressed and dense matter, in the form of a rapidly revolving sphere, entraps and squeezes most of the star’s weight and magnetic field. The powerful magnetic field created by these rapidly revolving neutron stars has been shown to cause the emission of powerful radio waves observable on Earth.

In the third verse of Surat at-Tariq the term “alnnajmu alththaqibu,” meaning piercing, piercing and moving on, or opening holes, indicates that Tariq is a bright star that pierces a hole in the darkness and moves on. The concept of the term “adraka” in the expression “And what will convey to you what the Tariq is?” refers to comprehension. Pulsars, formed through the compression of stars several times the size of the Sun, are among those celestial bodies that are hard to comprehend. The question in the verse emphasizes how hard it is to comprehend this beating star. (Allah knows best.)

As discussed, the stars described as Tariq in the Qur’an bear a close similarity to the pulsars described in the 20th century, and may reveal to us another scientific miracle of the Qur’an.

THE STAR SIRIUS


The star Sirius appears in Surat an-Najm (meaning “star”). The double stars that comprise Sirius approach each other with their axes in a bow-shape once every 49.9 years. This astronomical phenomenon is indicated in the verses Surat an-Najm 9 and 49.

When certain concepts mentioned in the Qur’an are studied in the light of 21st century scientific discoveries we find ourselves imparted with yet more miracles of the Qur’an. One of these is the star Sirius, mentioned in Surat an-Najm 49:

… it is He Who is the Lord of Sirius. (Qur’an, 53: 49)

The fact that the Arabic word “shiaara,” the equivalent of the star Sirius, appears only in Surat an-Najm, meaning only “star,” 49 is particularly striking. Because, considering the irregularity in the movement of Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky, as their starting point, scientists discovered that it was actually a double star. Sirius is actually a set of two stars, known as Sirius A and Sirius B. The larger of these is Sirius A, which is also the closer to the Earth and the brightest star that can be seen with the naked eye. Sirius B, however, cannot be seen without a telescope.

The Sirius double stars orbit in ellipses about one another. The orbital period of Sirius A & B about their common centre of gravity is 49.9 years. This scientific data is today accepted with one accord by the departments of astronomy at Harvard, Ottawa and Leicester Universities.51 However, this scientific fact, the accuracy of which was only realised in the late 20th century, was miraculously indicated in the Qur’an 1,400 years ago. When verses 49 and 9 of Surat an-Najm are read together, this miracle becomes apparent:

… it is He Who is the Lord of Sirius, (Qur’an, 53: 49)

He was two bow-lengths away or even closer. (Qur’an, 53:9)

The description in Surat an-Najm 9 may also describe how these two stars approach one another in their orbits. (Allah knows best.) This scientific fact, that nobody could have known at the time of the revelation of the Qur’an, once again proves that the Qur’an is the Word of Almighty Allah.

[He is] the Originator of the heavens and earth. When He decides on something, He just says to it, “Be!” and it is.
(Qur’an, 2:117)

LIGHT AND DARK

Praise belongs to Allah Who created the heavens and the earth and appointed darkness and light… (Qur’an, 6:1)

We all know that without light a person cannot see his surroundings with the naked eye. However, the light that we can see is only a very small part of all light-emitting energy. There are other kinds of light-emitting energy that human beings cannot perceive, such as infra-red, ultra-violet, x-rays and radio waves. Human beings are effectively blind to such light waves.

It is interesting, therefore, that the word for “darkness” in the Qur’an is always in the plural. The Arabic word, “ththulumat,” is used in the plural in 23 verses of the Qur’an, and never used in the singular. The use of the word “darkness” in the Qur’an indicates that in addition to those light waves we can see, there may also be other kinds.

Only recently did scientists discover why the plural may have been used here. Wave lengths vary in a form of energy known as electromagnetic radiation. All the different forms of electromagnetic radiation behave as energy waves in space. This can be compared to the waves which form when a stone is thrown into a pond. As the waves on a pond can be of different sizes, so electromagnetic radiation has different-sized waves.

Stars and other sources of light do not all give off the same kind of emissions. These different rays are classified according to their wavelengths. The spectrum of wavelengths is quite wide. There is a 1025 (a billion times a billion times a billion) difference between gamma rays, with the smallest size wavelength, and radio waves, which are the largest. Nearly all the rays emitted by the Sun are squeezed into just one part of this 1025 spectrum.

In order to better understand the colossal dimensions of this figure, it will be useful to make a comparison. If we wanted to count to 1025, and if we counted day and night without pause, it would take us 100 million times the age of the Earth to finish. The different wavelengths in the universe are distributed within a spectrum of just such a size. 70% of the different wavelengths emitted by the Sun are limited to a very narrow spectrum between 0.3 microns and 1.5 microns. There are three kinds of light within that band: visible light, infra-red light and ultraviolet light. Despite occupying a band less than 1 in 1025, the rays known as visible light represent 41% of all the Sun’s rays.

As has been discussed, electromagnetic waves perceivable to the human eye are responsible for only a very small part of the light spectrum. The other regions represent only darkness for human beings, who are blind to wavelengths outside that band.52

taken from  United Indian Muslims grOup                             
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/unitedindianmuslims

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Rain in the Qur’an

Rain in the Qur’an

 

 

Rain is indeed one of the most important factors for life on the earth. Rain is a prerequisite for the permanence of life in a region. Rain, which carries great importance for all living things including human beings, is mentioned in various verses of the Qur’an where substantial information is given about the formation of rain, its proportion and effects. The fact that it was not possible for any of this information to have been discovered at the time of the revelation of the Qur’an shows us that the Qur’an is the word of Allah.

Now, let us examine the information given in the Qur’an about rain.

The Proportion of Rain

In the eleventh verse of Surat az-Zukhruf, rain is defined as water sent down in due measure. The verse is as follows:

“And He who sends down (from time to time) water from the sky in due measure, and We raise to life therewith a land that is dead. Even so will you be raised (from the dead)”. (Surat az – Zukhruf, 11)

This “measure” mentioned in the verse has to do with a couple of characteristics of rain. First of all, the amount of rain that falls on the earth is always the same. It is estimated that in one second, 16 million tones of water evaporates from the earth. This number is equal to the amount of water that drops on the earth in one second. This means that water continuously circulates in a balanced cycle according to a “measure”. Another measure related with rain is about its falling speed. The minimum altitude of rain clouds is 1200 meters.

 When dropped from this height, an object having the same weight and size as a rain drop, would continuously accelerate and fall on the ground with a speed of 558 km/h. Certainly, any object that hits the ground with that speed would cause big damage. If rain happened to fall in the same way, all harvested lands would be destroyed, residential areas, houses, and cars would be damaged, people would not be able to walk around without taking necessary precautions. What is more, these calculations are made just for clouds of 1200 meters high, whereas there are also rain clouds at an altitude of 10.000 meters. A rain drop falling from such a height could normally reach a very destructive speed.

But this is not how it works; no matter from how high they fall, average speed of rain drops is only 8-10 km/h when they reach the ground. The reason for this is the special form they take. This special form increases the friction effect of the atmosphere and prevents acceleration when the rain drops reach a certain speed “limit”. (Today parachutes are designed by using this technique.)

This is not all about the “measures” of rain. For instance, in the atmospheric layers where it starts to rain, the temperature may fall so low as 400 C degrees. Despite this, rain drops never turn into ice particles. (This would certainly mean a fatal threat for the living things on the earth).

The reason is that the water in the atmosphere is pure water. As known, pure water hardly freezes even in very low temperatures.

The Formation of Rain

 

http://science.hq.nasa.gov/oceans/images/water_cycle.jpg

How rain forms remained a great mystery for people for a long time. Only after air radar were discovered, could it have been possible to learn by which stages rain formed.

The formation of rain takes place in three stages: First, the “raw material” of rain rises up in the air. Later, clouds are formed and lastly, rain drops appear.

These stages are clearly defined in the Qur’an in which precise information was given about the formation of rain centuries in advance; “It is Allah Who sends the Winds, and they raise the Clouds: then does He spread them in the sky as He wills, and break them into fragments, until you see rain-drops issue from the midst thereof: then when He has made them reach such of his servants as He wills behold, they do rejoice!”

Now, let us look at the three stages mentioned in the verse;

1st Stage : “It is Allah Who sends the winds…”
Countless air bubbles formed by the foaming in the oceans continuously burst and cause water particles to be ejected towards the sky. These particles which are rich in salt, are then carried away by winds and move upwards in the atmosphere. These particles which are called aerosols form clouds by collecting around themselves the water vapour – that again ascends from the seas – as tiny drops, by a mechanism called “water trap”

2nd Stage : ” … and they raise the Clouds: then does He spread them in the sky as He wills, and break them into fragments ….”
The clouds form from the water vapour that condenses around the salt crystals or the dust particles in the air. Because the water drops in these are very small (with a diameter between 0.01 and 0.02 mm), the clouds are suspended in the air and they spread in the sky. Thus the sky is covered with clouds.

3rd Stage : “…. until you see rain-drops issue from the midst thereof.”
Water particles that surround salt crystals and dust particles thicken and form rain drops. So, the drops which become heavier than air depart from the clouds, and start to fall on the ground as rain.

The conclusion to be arrived here is that; Every stage in the formation of rain is told in the verses of the Qur’an. Furthermore, these stages are explained in the order they take place… Just like in many other natural phenomena in the world, it is again the Qur’an that provides the most correct explanation about this phenomena as well, and more, that has announced these facts to people centuries before they were discovered by science.

Life Given to a Dead Land

In the Qur’an, a lot of verses call our attention to a particular function of rain, which is “giving life to a dead land”. It is stated in a verse as

“…. We send down pure water from the sky. That with it We may give life to a dead land, and slake the thirst of things We have created,- cattle and men in great numbers”. (Surat al-Furqan, 48- 49)

In addition to furnishing the earth with water, rain also has a fertilisation effect.

Rain drops that reach the clouds after being evaporated from the seas, contain certain substances “that will give life” to a dead land. These “life-giving” drops are called “surface tension drops”. Surface tension drops form on the top level of the sea surface which is called the micro layer by biologists. In this layer, which is thinner than one tenth of a millimetre, there are many organic leftovers caused from the pollution of microscopic algaes and zooplanktons. Some of these leftovers select and collect within themselves some elements which are very rare in sea water such as phosphorus, magnesium, potassium and some heavy metals like copper, zinc, cobalt and lead.

These “fertiliser” laden drops are lifted up into the sky by the winds and after a while they drop on the ground inside the rain drops. Seeds and plants on the earth find numerous metallic salts and elements essential for their growth here in these rain drops. This event is informed in another verse of the Qur’an as follows:

“And We send down from the sky rain chartered with blessing, and We produce therewith gardens and grain for harvests.” (Surah Qaf, 9)

Salts that fall with rain are small examples of some fertilisers (calcium, magnesium, potassium etc.) used for increasing fertility. The heavy metals found in these types of aerosols, on the other hand, are other elements that increase fertility in the development and production of plants.

Forests also develop and are fed with the help of these sea-originated aerosols. In this way, 150 million tons of fertiliser falls on the total surface of lands every year. If there was not a natural fertilisation like this, there would be very little vegetation on the earth, and the ecological balance would be damaged.

http://www.mass.gov/envir/forest/images/multiLayerForest.jpg 

What is more interesting is that this truth, which could only be discovered by modern science, was informed by Allah in the Qur’an centuries ago.

 

http://www.playandlearn.org/reader.asp?Type=QuranicArticles&fn=106

Treat your illnesses by suJood (prostration)

Treat your Illnesses by   Sujood
(Prostration)

 

  •  
    • If you are suffering from exhaustion or tension or permanent headache or nervousness and if you are afraid of tumors, so all you have to do is Sujood .

    • Sujood frees you from your psychological and nerves illnesses.    

Th e latest result of a scientific study by Dr. Mohamed Diaa ElDeen Hamed, Professor of Biological Sciences and Head of Food Radiation Department in Radiation Technology Center   

  

  •  
    •  It is a common knowledge that a human being is exposed to extra waves of radiation and lives, in most cases, in the middle of electromagnetic fields which affects the cells and increase energy.

    • So, as stated by Dr. Diaa, Sujood frees the body from the extra waves that cause many diseases.

Communication between cells

  •  
    • It is a kind of a reaction between the cells. It helps the human being to feel the outer space and react with it.

    • Any increase in the electromagnetic waves to which the body is exposed, causes disruption in the cells and consequently the human being is infected by what is called the diseases of the era; such as headaches, muscles pain, neck pain, exhaustion in addition to forgetting things and non concentration.

    • This matter gets worse if the waves are too much and being blocked in the body. In that case, it causes cancer tumors and distortion of fetuses.

    • We have to get rid of these waves out of the body without taking medicines and tranquilizers and their bad side effects.

The Solution

  •  
    • There has to be an earthling’s connection to free these extra waves and this is to be done by Sujood to ALLAH Almighty, as we are ordered. This process is done by connecting the forehead to the floor.

    • In Sujood, the negative waves move from the body to the floor which is a negative pole. Consequently, the emptying process happens specially if you done the Sujood by your seven members (forehead, nose, hands, knees and feet).

Peculiar information

  •  
    • The studies showed that, in order to empty the waves, you have to face Mecca in your Sujood. That is what we are all doing in our prayer (Quibla).

    • That is because Mecca is the centre of the Earth.

    • The studies revealed that Mecca is the best direction to free these waves because of facing the centre of the Earth which is effective in freeing the human being from his grieves to feel peacefulness afterwards.

Mecaa is the Center of the Earth

Mecaa is the Center of the Earth

Dr. Salih Muhammad Awadh

Iraq , Baghdad university , faculty of science ,

Geology Dept

Translated by : Magdy Abd Al-Shafy

The layers of the earth

In this short study , when contemplating about the miracles of God  in this universe , I   will show the miracles in the creation of the earth though many people go unmindful of them . God says in the Holy Quran what means ” And in the earth are portents for those whose faith is sure   “ (Al-Zaryat :20) According to seismology , the earth , from the surface to its center , is composed of   three layers and   these with the secondary ones form seven layers ( figure 1) , God refers to this wel-established fact in the Holy Quran , God says in the Holy Quran in this regard what means ( Allah it is who hath created seven heavens, and of the earth the like thereof. The commandment cometh down among them slowly, that ye may know that Allah is Able to do all things, and that Allah surroundeth all things in knowledge .” (56:12)

These layers are:

1-The earth Crust

  It the solid part that we live   on , it varies in   thickness , the maximum thickness is under the mountain   while   thickness is relatively smaller under oceans ; the earth crust can be scientifically categorized into two parts :

(a) The continental crust :

It is a rocky mass varying   in   thickness , the rate of thickness varies between 30Km-40Km in the continental areas while it reaches 70km under mountains

(b) The oceanic layer : it is a rocky structure encompassing the earth under oceans and the crust ; it is not harmonious structure with relatively thickness of 6km

The mantle : it is higher in dense than all the masses of the crust , it is complex in structure ; because of the high temperature and pressure , it is semi-rigid , it is the source of magma , it can be divided into three parts

  (a)The upper mantle which goes deep to a depth of 400km under the crust .

   (b) The transformation zone which extends from 400km to 1000km

   ? The lower mantle which extends from 1000 km to 2900km

3-The core of the earth , it is mainly composed of iron and Nickel and it can be divided into layers

a) The outer core which is in a liquid state , it extends from a depth of 2900km to 5080km

      (b) The interior core : it is a rigid substance and it extends from a depth of

      5080 to 6371 , it is believed that the internal core is the centre of the earth .

The rock layer of the earth on which we live has never been one mass but it is composed of what scientifically known as ( plates ) . God refers to this fact in the Holy Quran , ( And in the Earth are neighboring tracts, vineyards and ploughed lands, and date palms, like and unlike, which are watered with one water. And We have made some of them to excel others in fruit. Lo! herein verily are portents for people who have sense . ) (13-4)

These adjacent plates , that are mentioned in the Holy Quran , are that which are scientifically approved ( figure 2) , this is , now , the most well-established and the most scientifically well-supported fact , it is taught everywhere in the world universities , Geology department . The most well-known earth plates are :

       1. Eurasian plate   covering Asia and Europe

2.African plate covering Africa

3.The Arabian plate

4.Antarctic plate covering Antarctic

5.  Australian plate, covering Australia (fused with Indian plate between 50 and 55 million years ago)

6.  North  American Plate   covering  North  America  and north-east Siberia

7.  South American plate covering South America

8.   Pacific Plate   covering the Pacific Plate  

9.     The Indian Plate

10. The Caribbean plate

11. The   Philippine plate

12. Scotia

Figure (1) The scientifically- known plates nowadays ( mentioned in the Holy Quran as the neighboring plates

 The plates motion

the earth plates relatively moves slowly and constantly , it can’t be seen directly but can be recoded with highly advanced technology ;   (1M a year was reported by this technology as regard the movement of one of these plates)and can be experienced during earthquakes .

There are three main kinds of   motions as regard the plate movement :

Convergent movement , divergent movement and transform movement, in the divergent movement , two adjacent plate move in the opposite directions moving away from each other and this often happens in mid-floor of seas and   oceans causing dint or protuberance and this result in the gushing out of the magma under sea water , being molten and with high pressure , it cause large mass of water to evaporate   ; the Holy Quran has referred to this scientific fact in the following verse (And by the sea set on fire )   (81:6)

Ocean floor rift   typifies   a certain kind of earthquakes followed by magma out-break . This magma is composed of complex substance higher in density than the rocks of the crust , scientific studies have proved that density of the upper mantle is much higher in density than that of the earth crust (0.4gramme/ cm3 ) , the more we go down , the more differences in density . The Holy Quran refers to this scientific fact ( When Earth is shaken with her (final) earthquake and Earth yieldeth up her burdens(99:1-2)

These magma forms what is now known as the volcanic mountains which are termed as mid-ocean ridges, which rise over the oceans and seas water forming islands , the earthquake and volcanoes co-occurrence can be illustrated in (figure -3) the convergence movement   means that two adjacent plate approach each other with result that they collide with each other , as they go on colliding ,one of them or both slidedown as far as 100Km  with the result that they have their structure changed turning into semi-molten state because of the high temperature – this process typifies the corroding

figure 2) the locations where the last recorded quakes took place in the last century dotted in black , these co-occur the locations of opening the mid-oceans (oceans colored blue) and also represent the locations of crust plates collisions ( colored green) taken from (Spencer ,2003)

(Of the ends of the plates or the ends of the earth as the Holy Quran depicts , this fact is mentioned in the Holy Quran in the following two Holy verses . God says in the Holy Quran in this regard what means ( See they not how We visit the land, reducing it of its outlying parts? (When) Allah doometh there is none that can postpone His doom, and He is swift at reckoning. “ (13:41)

Also God says also in the Holy Quran what means “Nay, but We gave these and their fathers ease until life grew long for them. See they not how we visit the land, reducing it of its outlying parts? Can they then be the victors? “ (21:44)

A plate might   slide over the other forming structural mountains , these moves with the plates; these means that these mountains moves and that what the Holy Quran refers to , God says in the Holy Quran what means ( And when the hills are moved) (81:3)

Also God says in the Holy Quran what means ” Had it been possible for a Lecture to cause the mountains to move, or the earth to be torn asunder, or the dead to speak, (this Quran would have done so). Nay, but Allah’s is the whole command. Do not those who believe know that, had Allah willed, He could have guided all mankind? As for those who disbelieve, disaster ceaseth not to strike them because of what they do, or it dwelleth near their home until the threat of Allah come to pass. Lo! Allah faileth not to keep the tryst.”

Also God says in the Holy Quran what means “And (bethink you of) the Day when We remove the hills and ye see the earth emerging, and We gather them together so as to leave not one of them behind.(18:47)

 Earth quakes and volcanoes eruptions accompany the collision of the plates , the same thing happens in the transform movement which cause fissures as long as it goes lengthwise ; this is also a proof that plates are in continuous motion since they were first formed up till now .

The movement of the earth plate reasons

The reason for the motion of the plates lies in the mantle under the crust  whose thickness reaches 2800 km ,it is composed of rocky complex silicon material , partially or wholly molten, yet it is not in a liquid state  but rather in a very viscous state with high temperature and pressure , it is  well established that  the deeper , the hotter inside the earth ; so the temperature of the lower parts in the mantle  is higher than the upper , because of the variance of temperature between the plates of the earth , the giant convective currents take place  moving from the lower  parts to the upper parts circularly ?because of the difference in density – carrying up the hotter substance  and then the less hot substances goes  down because of  its high density and weight , this process is constant and continuous (Figure -4) , the convective currents press hard on the earth crust over it causing it to move in any of the ways  already mentioned motions

 (  Figure -3) the convective currents in the mantle between the crust and the core

 The movement of the earth plate is accurately calculated and compact; it keeps the mass of the earth and surface area , in the time when the end of one of the sunken plate  wears away (or shrink in size ) a new rocky substance is generated  in  the facing end (mid-ocean ridges ) . These keep the gravity among  space masses and keep these objects going in their orbits , this highly perfected accuracy can’t be a mere chance ?The earth ?a simple creatures – is among the many creatures of  The Omnipotent -God omnipotence is infinite, God says in the Holy Quran what mean ” And they esteem not Allah as He hath the right to be esteemed, when the whole earth is His handful on the Day of Resurrection, and the heavens are rolled in His right hand. Glorified is He and High Exalted from all that they ascribe as partner (unto Him)( 39:67)

Mecca Location in  the light of the plate movement through the geological ages

Geologists divides the historical geology of the earth   into many divisions  and subdivision  to make it understandable when talking about a certain period of the earth age , the earth’s age is estimated to be 4.5 billions years ,the earth age extends  from the Cambrian age till the modern age , since this age , the earth plates have been moving continuously changing their shapes and locations and even their numbers ? some of them were broken forming new plates  while others were joined together .

It is scientifically ?established that the earth plates , through the long geological age , have been moving regularly around the Arabian plate ;these plates constantly converge towards it as if they pointed to it . Scientific studies  affirm  and attest these facts though not  published to discuss the convergence of the plates towards the Arabian plate but published with irrelevant aims .

(Figure -5) shows the movement of the Indian plate according to  magnetic anomalies estimations regarding  the floor of Indian ocean , it also shows the different locations that both the Indian and sir lanka plates occupied  over  the span of the  last 71 millions years up till now till it seemingly took its final place that is because its movement can’t be seen and that its movement is too slow , if compared with the human age . It is clear in (figure -5 ) that the Indian plate had moved northwards with a slight circulation counterclockwise( figure-5) , the movement of the Arabian plate is not taken into consideration in this figure , the location of the Saudi Arabia is a part of the Arabian plate .

 (Figure -6) shows the location of Arabian plate according to the Indian , African , Turkish and Iranians plates ( it was first composed of a number of parts , this figure also shows the part middle of  Iran as a separate part from the north of the west of Iran ) and Afghanistan , (figure -6) shows the location of these plate surrounding the Arabian plate , the dotted lines parts ( plates represented with discontinued line ) to the earth plate during  the mid Jurasic Age

 figure -4) the movement of the Indian plate 71 millions years ago estimated according to the magnetic anomalies in according to Indian ocean bed ? the source is:( Spencer,2003)

(( Figure 5) the movement of the earth plates according to the Arabian plate one million years ago (source Forster,1978)

   ( that is one millions years ago ) . when looking carefully at( figure -6) , we will find that the Indian plate has moved northwards counterclockwise as far as a few degrees and so did the plates of Afghanistan , the middle and the north of the west of Iran , and Turkey

  If we look at the location of   the Arab plate in the one million years ago ( the part which is represented by dots) in ( figure 6) , we will find that it has moved a little northwards taking into consideration the movement of   the far plates;   it moved around counterclockwise. We can conclude that the Arabian plate in the last million years ( before creating the human being ) and at the present time took a mid position among the earth plates ? these plates encompass it (figure-6)

During her long time journey , the Arabian plate didn’t cover along distance as it is the center of the circulation movement, it has moved within the shorter diameter. So it is clear that the Arabian plate is center of the earth plates ,and everywhere it goes , it is followed by the other plates going round it regularly , each plate keeps its constant direction towards the Arabian plate . It is well-established that Mecca where the Moslem Kabba lies is in the Arabian plate (figure -7) 

Now , if we use the same approach applied on the Arabian plate , we can say that every thing on and in the earth directs its face to Mecca where the Moslem Kabba lies , this system will go on , according to God’s will , to a certain time assigned   by God , this accurate unwavering system can’t be out of a chance ; it is a supernatural power that made it and is still keeping it going on ? that is God , who rose the heavens with unseen pillars . 

(figure -6) the location of   the Holy Mecca in the Arabian plate

 

lso God says in the Holy Quran what means ” Allah is Creator of all things, and He is Guardian over all things . “(39:62)

Also God says in the Holy Quran what means “Say (O Muhammad): Who is Lord of the heaven and the earth? Say: Allah! Say: Take ye then (others) beside Him for protectors, which, even for themselves, have neither benefit nor hurt? Say: Is the blind man equal to the seer, or is darkness equal to light? Or assign they unto Allah partners Who created the like of His creation so that the creation (which they made and His creation) seemed alike to them? Say: Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Almighty “(13:62)

Also God says in the Holy Quran what means “ So , now , since everything directs its face towards the Holy Mecca , and that the Holy Kabba is the center of Mecca   , we can assuredly and scientifically say that Kabba is the center of the earth and that everything on or under it directs its face towards it in complete submissiveness and piety “

God says in the Holy Quran what means ” Hast thou not seen that unto Allah payeth adoration whosoever is in the heavens and whosoever is in the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the hills, and the trees, and the beasts, and many of mankind, while there are many unto whom the doom is justly due. He whom Allah scorneth, there is none to give him honor. Lo! Allah doeth what He will.” (22:18 )

God says in the Holy Quran what means “ And unto Allah falleth prostrate whosoever is in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly, as do their shadows in the morning and the evening hours . “ (13:15)

   God says in the Holy Quran what means ” And unto Allah maketh prostration whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth of living creatures, and the angels (also), and they are not proud (16:49)

God says in the Holy Quran what means “ And of His portents (is this): that thou seest the earth lowly, but when  We send down water thereon it thrilleth and groweth. Lo! He who quickeneth it is verily the Quickener of the dead. Lo! He is Able to do all things “. (41:39)

God says in the Holy Quran what means ” Allah hath appointed the Ka’bah, the Sacred House, a standard for mankind, and the Sacred Month and the offerings and the garlands. That is so that ye may know that Allah knoweth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth, and that Allah is Knower of all things.

“(5:97)

Glory be to the Creator of the Heaves   and the earth , we deeply implore Him to enlighten our dark heart with the light of his countenance that enlighten the Heavens and the earth

God says in the Holy Quran what means ” And the earth shineth with the light of her Lord, and the Book is set up, and the Prophets and the witnesses are brought, and it is judged between them with truth, and they are not wronged .” (39:67)

we deeply implore to him to animate our hearts with light of wisdom as he animate the barren land   with rain   and to accept our deeds and acts making them only for his pleasure

  Then praise be to Allah, Lord of the heavens and Lords of the earth, the Lord of the Worlds. And unto Him (alone) belongeth majesty in the heavens and the earth, and He is the Mighty, the Wise . (45:36-37)


Sources :

2-Spencer E. W. 2003: Earth Science, understanding environment    systems. McGraw Hill. Toranto, 517p.

3- Forster, H., 1978: Mesozoic ?Cenozoic metallogenesis in Iran . journal of the Geological Society ? London . Printed in the Netherland. Vol.135. pp 443-455. 8 figs

.

THE SCIENTIFIC MIRACLES OF THE QUR’AN

THE SCIENTIFIC MIRACLES OF THE QUR’AN

THE SKY MADE A DOME
THE RETURNING SKY
THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH
THE EARTH DISGORGES ITS CHARGES
THE FUNCTION OF MOUNTAINS
THE MOVEMENT OF MOUNTAINS
DIFFERENT POINTS IN THE RISING AND SETTING OF THE SUN
LAND LOSS AT THE EXTREMITIES
THE SPLITTING EARTH
THE MIRACLE OF IRON

THE SKY MADE A DOME

It is He Who made the earth a couch for you, and the sky a dome. He sends down water from the sky and by it brings forth fruits for your provision. Do not, then, knowingly make others equal to Allah. (Qur’an, 2:22)


The Geminid meteor shower is observed at its highest intensity in the second week of December each year. The short lines in the photograph to the side are traces belonging to stars; the long ones belong to meteors. The meteors in the shower seen in the picture fall at a density of up to 58 per hour.

Here, the Arabic word for the sky is “assamaa binaan.” As well as the meaning of “dome” or “ceiling,” this also describes a kind of tent-like covering used by the Bedouin.22 What is being emphasised here, through mention of a tent-like structure, is a form of protection against external elements.

Even if we are generally unaware of it, a large number of meteors fall to the Earth, as they do the other planets. The reason why these make enormous craters on other planets but do no harm on Earth is that the atmosphere puts up considerable resistance to a falling meteor. The meteor is unable to withstand this for long and loses much of its mass from combustion due to friction. This danger, which might otherwise cause terrible disasters, is thus prevented thanks to the atmosphere. As well as the verses regarding the protective properties of the atmosphere cited above, attention is also drawn to the special creation in the following verse:

Do you not see that Allah has made everything on the earth subservient to you and the ships running upon the sea by His command? He holds back the heaven, preventing it from falling to the earth-except by His permission. Allah is All-Compassionate to mankind, Most Merciful. (Qur’an, 22:65)

The protective property of the atmosphere we discussed in the preceding section protects the Earth from space-in other words, from external elements. With the word “dome,” referring to the sky in the above verse, attention is drawn to this aspect of the sky, which could not possibly have been known at the time of our Prophet (saas). The fact that this information was imparted 1,400 years ago in the Qur’an, when there were no spacecraft or giant telescopes, shows that the Qur’an is the revelation of our Lord, the Omniscient.

THE RETURNING SKY

The verse 11 of Surat at-Tariq in the Qur’an, refers to the “returning” function of the sky.

[I swear] by Heaven which returns. (Qur’an, 86:11)

The word “rajaai” interpreted as “return” in Qur’an translations has meanings of “sending back” or “returning.” As is known, the atmosphere surrounding the Earth consists of many layers. Each layer serves an important purpose for the benefit of life on Earth. Research has revealed that these layers have the function of turning the materials or rays they are exposed to back into space or back down to the Earth. Now let us examine, employing a few fitting examples, this “returning” function of the layers encircling the Earth.

The presence of water is essential for life on Earth. One of the factors acting in the formation of water is the Troposphere, one of the layers of the atmosphere. The troposphere layer enables water vapour rising from the surface of the Earth to be condensed from whence it returns to the Earth in the form of rain.

The atmosphere layer that blocks the rays that might be fatal to life on Earth is the Ozonosphere. The Ozonosphere turns harmful cosmic rays like ultraviolet back to space, hence preventing them from reaching the Earth and harming life.

Each layer of the atmosphere has beneficial attributes for human beings. For example, the Ionosphere layer, one of the upper layers of the atmosphere, reflects radio waves broadcast from a certain centre back down to the Earth, thus enabling broadcasts to be received from long distances.

The troposphere, 13 to 15 kilometres above the Earth, enables water vapour rising from the surface of the Earth to be condensed and turned back as rain. The ozone layer, the lower layer of stratosphere at an altitude of 25 kilometres, reflects harmful radiation and ultraviolet light coming from space and turns both back into space.

The ionosphere reflects radio waves broadcast from the Earth back down to different parts of the world just like a passive communications satellite. Thus, it makes wireless communication, radio, and television broadcasting possible over long distances. The magnetosphere layer turns the harmful radioactive particles emitted by the Sun and other stars back into space before they reach the Earth.

The fact that this property of the atmosphere’s layers, that was only demonstrated in the recent past was announced centuries ago in the Qur’an, once again proves that the Qur’an is Allah’s Word.

THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH

One item of information about the Earth given in the Qur’an is its similarity to the seven-layered sky:

It is Allah Who created the seven heavens and of the earth the same number, the Command descending down through all of them, so that you might know that Allah has power over all things and that Allah encompasses all things in His knowledge. (Qur’an, 65:12)

The information in the above verse is confirmed in scientific sources, wherein it is explained that the Earth consists of seven strata. These, as scientists have identified, are:

1st layer: Lithosphere (water)

2nd layer: Lithosphere (land)

3rd layer: Asthenosphere

4th layer: Upper Mantle

5th layer: Inner Mantle

6th layer: Outer Core

7th layer: Inner Core

The word lithosphere is derived from the Greek word lithos, meaning stone, which is a hard stratum forming the Earth’s top layer. It is quite thin in comparison to the other strata. The lithosphere under the oceans is still thinner, and is a region with volcanic activity. Its average thickness is 80 km. It is colder and harder than the other strata, and therefore, forms the earth’s shell.

Below the lithosphere is the stratum known as the asthenosphere, from the Greek word for “weak,” asthenes. This layer is thinner than the lithosphere and shifts. It was formed of hot, semi-solid substances capable of melting when exposed to high temperatures and pressure over geological time. It is thought that the hard lithosphere floats or moves over the slowly moving asthenosphere.23 Under these layers is a high-temperature layer some 2,900 km thick, made up of semi-solid rock known as the mantle. This contains more iron, magnesium and calcium than the crust, and is also hotter and denser, because temperature and density in the Earth increase with depth.

At the centre of the Earth is the core, approximately twice as dense as the mantle. The reason for that density is that it contains a higher proportion of metals (iron-nickel alloy) than rock. The Earth’s core consists of two parts. One is the 2,200 km thick liquid outer core, the other a 1,250 km thick solid inner core. The liquid outer core provides the Earth’s magnetic field as the planet rotates.

The truth of this similarity between the sky and the layers of the Earth, only identified by 20th century technology, is without doubt another of the Qur’an’s scientific miracles.

THE EARTH DISGORGES ITS CHARGES

When the earth is convulsed with its quaking and the earth then disgorges its charges and man asks, “What is wrong with it?”, on that Day it will impart all its news. (Qur’an, 99:1-4)

The word “zilzal” in Arabic means earthquake, or tremors, and the word “athqalaha” means “charges, heavy burdens.” When one considers the above verses in the light of the first meaning, it can be seen that reference is being made to an important scientific fact about earthquakes.

Surat az-Zilzal 2 mentions the earth disgorging its charges. Indeed, as a result of research in recent years, it has been realised that there are heavy metals at the centre of the Earth, and that these appear as a result of movements on the Earth’s surface. According to geologists’ calculations, as the Earth cooled, heavy and dense substances sank to its centre, while lighter ones rose to the surface. For that reason, the Earth’s crust consists of the least heaviest substances (basalt and granite rocks), while heavy metals (nickel and iron) are found in the core. As a result, the subsurface, which consists of molten metals, is made of a material that is much heavier and denser than the surface.

During earthquakes, the heavy substances below the surface have an opportunity to rise, and the Earth thus disgorges its charges, as revealed in the Qur’an. Moreover, those regions where metal reserves are most concentrated are also those with the greatest volcanic activity. These scientific findings, which emerged only recently, and as a result of wide-ranging research, are just some of the scientific facts indicated by Allah in the Qur’an.

THE FUNCTION OF MOUNTAINS

The Qur’an draws attention to a very important geological function of mountains:

We placed firmly embedded mountains on the earth, so it would not move under them… (Qur’an, 21:31)

The verse states that mountains perform the function of preventing shocks in the Earth. This fact was not known by anyone at the time the Qur’an was revealed. It was, in fact, brought to light only recently, as a result of the findings of modern geological research.

Formerly, it was thought that mountains were merely protrusions rising above the surface of the Earth. However, scientists realised that this was not actually the case, and that those parts known as the mountain root extended down as far as 10-15 times their own height. With these features, mountains play a similar role to a nail or peg firmly holding down a tent. For example, Mount Everest, the summit of which stands approximately 9 km above the surface of the Earth, has a root deeper than 125 km.24

Mountains have roots deep under the surface of the ground. (Press and Siever, Earth, 413.)
Schematic section. Mountains, like pegs, have deep roots embedded in the ground. (Andre Cailleux and J. Moody Stuart, Anatomy of the Earth (McGraw-Hill Companies: 1968), 220.)
Another illustration shows how mountains are peg-like in shape, due to their deep roots. (Edward J. Tarbuck and Frederick K. Lutgens, Earth Science (USA: Macmillan USA: 1993), 158.)

Mountains emerge as a result of the movements and collisions of massive plates forming the Earth’s crust. When two plates collide, the stronger one slides under the other, the one on the top bends and forms heights and mountains. The layer beneath proceeds under the ground and makes a deep extension downward. Consequently, as stated earlier, mountains have a portion stretching downwards, as large as their visible parts on the Earth.

In a scientific text, the structure of mountains is described as follows:

Where continents are thicker, as in mountain ranges, the crust sinks deeper into the mantle.25

Professor Siaveda, a world-renowned underwater geologist, made the following comment in reference to the way that mountains have root-like stalks attaching them to the surface:

The fundamental difference between continental mountains and the oceanic mountains lies in its material… But the common denominator on both mountains are that they have roots to support the mountains. In the case of continental mountains, light-low density material from the mountain is extended down into the earth as a root. In the case of oceanic mountains, there is also light material supporting the mountain as a root… Therefore, the function of the roots are to support the mountains according to the law of Archimedes.26

Furthermore, a book titled Earth, by Dr. Frank Press, former president of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, which is still used as a text book in a great many universities, states that mountains are like stakes, and are buried deep under the surface of the Earth.27

In other verses, this role of the mountains is pointed out by a comparison with “pegs”:

Have We not made the earth as a bed and the mountains its pegs? (Qur’an, 78:6-7)

In another verse it is revealed that Allah “made the mountains firm.” (Qur’an, 79:32) The word “arsaha” in this verse means “was made rooted, was fixed, was nailed to the earth.” Similarly, mountains extend to the surface layer joining lines on and below the surface, and nail these together. By fixing the Earth’s crust they prevent any sliding over the magma layer or amongst the layers themselves. In short, mountains can be compared to nails holding strips of wood together. The fixing effect of mountains is known as isostasy in scientific literature. Isostasy is the state of equilibrium between the upward force created by the mantle layer and the downward force created by the Earth’s crust. As mountains lose mass due to erosion, soil loss or melting of glaciers, they can gain mass from the formation of glaciers, volcanic explosions or soil formation. Therefore, as mountains grow lighter they are pressed upwards by the raising force implemented by the liquids. Alternatively, as they grow heavier they are pressed into the mantle by the force of gravity. Equilibrium between these two forces is established by isostasy. This balancing property of mountains is described in these terms in a scientific source:

G.B Airy in 1855 suggested that the crust of the earth could be likened to rafts of timber floating on water. Thick pieces of timber float higher above the water surface than thin pieces and similarly thick sections of the earth’s crust will float on a liquid or plastic substratum of greater density. Airy was suggesting that mountains have a deep root of lower density rock which the plains lack. Four years after Airy published his work, J.H Pratt offered an alternative hypothesis.. . By this hypothesis rock columns below mountains must have a lower density, because of their greater length, than shorter rock columns beneath plains. Both Airy and Pratt’s hypothesis imply that surface irregularities are balanced by differences in density of rocks below the major features (mountains and plains) of the crust. This state of BALANCE is described as the concept of ISOSTASY.28

Today, we know that the rocky external layer of the Earth’s surface is riven by deep faults and split into plates swimming above the molten lava. Since the Earth revolves very quickly around its own axis, were it not for the fixing effect of the mountains, these plaques would shift. In such an event, soil would not collect on the Earth’s surface, water would not accumulate in the soil, no plants could grow, and no roads or houses could be built. In short, life on Earth would be impossible. Through the mercy of Allah, however, mountains act like nails, and to a large extent, prevent movement in the Earth’s surface.

We subjected the mountains to glorify [Allah] with him in the
evening and at sunrise.
(Qur’an, 38:18)

He cast firmly embedded mountains on the earth so it would not move under you, and rivers and pathways so that hopefully
you would be guided.
(Qur’an, 16:15)

This vital role of mountains, which has been discovered by modern geological and seismic research, was revealed in the Qur’an centuries ago as an example of the supreme wisdom in Allah’s creation.

… [He] cast firmly embedded mountains on the earth so that it would not move under you… (Qur’an, 31:10)

THE MOVEMENT OF MOUNTAINS

In one verse, we are informed that mountains are not motionless as they seem, but are in constant motion.

You see the mountains you reckoned to be solid going past like clouds. (Qur’an, 27:88)

This motion of mountains is caused by the movement of the Earth’s crust that they are located on. The Earth’s crust “floats” over the mantle layer, which is denser. It was at the beginning of the 20th century when, for the first time in history, a German scientist by the name of Alfred Wegener proposed that the continents of the Earth had been attached together when it first formed, but then drifted in different directions, and thus separated as they moved away from each other.

Geologists understood that Wegener was right only in the 1980s, 50 years after his death. As Wegener pointed out in an article published in 1915, the land masses on the Earth were joined together about 500 million years ago, and this large mass, called Pangaea, was located in the South Pole.

Approximately 180 million years ago, Pangaea divided into two parts, which drifted in different directions. One of these giant continents was Gondwana, which included Africa, Australia, Antarctica and India. The second one was Laurasia, which included Europe, North America and Asia, except for India. Over the next 150 million years following this separation, Gondwana and Laurasia divided into smaller parts.

These continents, that emerged after the split of Pangaea, have been constantly moving on the Earth’s surface at a rate of several centimetres per year, and in the meantime changing the sea to land ratios of the Earth.

Discovered as a result of the geological research carried out at the beginning of the 20th century, this movement of the Earth’s crust is explained by scientists as follows:

The crust and the uppermost part of the mantle, with a thickness of about 100 kms., are divided into segments called plates. There are six major plates, and several small ones. According to the theory called plate tectonics, these plates move about on Earth, carrying continents and ocean floor with them. Continental motion has been measured at from 1-5 cm per year. As the plates continue to move about, this will produce a slow change in Earth’s geography. Each year, for instance, the Atlantic Ocean becomes slightly wider.29

There is an important point that needs to be stated here: Allah referred to the motion of mountains as drifting in a verse of the Qur’an. Today, modern scientists also use the term “continental drift” for this motion.30

Continental drift is something that could not have been observed at the time of the revelation of the Qur’an, though Allah clearly indicated how it was to be understood: “You see the mountains you reckoned to be solid” in the verse. Though, He further described this action in the following verse, stating that the mountains were going past like clouds. As has been indicated, attention is clearly drawn to the movement of the layer in which the mountains are fixed.

It is without doubt a great miracle that this scientific fact, only recently discovered by science, should have been revealed in the 7th century, when conceptions of the nature of the universe were based on superstition and myth. This is another very important proof that the Qur’an is the word of Allah.

DIFFERENT POINTS IN THE RISING AND SETTING OF THE SUN

No! I swear by the Lord of the Easts and Wests that We have the power. (Qur’an, 70:40)

Lord of the heavens and the earth and everything between them; Lord of the Easts. (Qur’an, 37:5)

The Lord of the two Easts and the Lord of the two Wests. (Qur’an, 55:17)

As can be discerned, the words east and west are used in the plural sense in the above verses. For instance, the word “mashariq,” used in the first verse for “east,” and the word “magharib” used for “west,” are in plural form, indicating that there are two of each. The words “mashriqayn” and “maghribayn” in the last verse are used for two easts and two wests. “Mashariq” and “magharib” also mean the place where the Sun rises and sets. The above verses are therefore referring to different sites of the dawning and closing of the day. It is also worthy of note that the vow is taken by the Lord of “the easts and wests” in the first verse.

The axis around which the earth revolves itself is at an angle of 23° 27′. Due to that angle, and the spherical shape of the Earth, the light rays from the Sun do not always strike it at the same angle. This means that since the Sun’s rays fall on that area at different angles, someone far away from the equator will observe the Sun rising at different points in the east and setting at different points in the west. The further away from the equator that person is the more different points he will identify for the dawning and closing of the day.

Someone at the equator, however, will always observe that the Sun rises exactly in the east and sets exactly in the west, since the Sun’s rays always fall perpendicularly there. Bearing in mind that the Arabian peninsula is not that far from the equator, it would appear impossible for such an observation to be made there. That is because someone in that region would see that the Sun always rises at the same point, and always sets at the same point. The expression regarding east and west in the above verses may be indicating the Sun rising and setting at different points. (Allah knows best.)

LAND LOSS AT THE EXTREMITIES

Do they not see how We come to the land eroding it at its extremities?… (Qur’an, 13:41)

… Do they not see how We come to the land eroding it from its extremities?… (Qur’an, 21:44)


A HUGE BALL OF FIRE

Immense twisting solar eruptions are filled with ionised helium gas at a temperature of 60,000 degrees Centigrade. (As observed by the SOHO satellite in extreme ultraviolet light.)

The Earth is bombarded by proton, electron and alpha particles from the Sun. These solar winds are powerful enough to separate the atmosphere from the Earth. However, it will take about five times longer than the total life of the Sun at the Earth’s present rate of matter loss (at most 3 kg per second.) for the atmosphere to be used up.31 That is because, thanks to the powerful magnetic field formed by the magnetosphere in the atmosphere, the Earth is to some extent protected from this powerful erosion. The loss of ions-oxygen, helium and hydrogen-dispersed over the Earth’s ionosphere layer into the depths of space is of much smaller dimensions than the vast layer of air surrounding the Earth. Even so, the amount leaking into space is nevertheless of a significant size.32

Thanks to NASA spacecraft, researchers have obtained concrete evidence that energy explosions on the Sun cause oxygen and other gases to disperse into space from the outer layer of the Earth’s atmosphere. Scientists first observed that the Earth experiences a loss of matter from its outer layers on September 24-25, 1998.33

However, the above verses may also be referring to the loss of land on Earth in another regard.

At the present time, the polar ice caps are melting and the water level in the oceans is rising. The increasing quantity of water is covering ever more land. As coastal areas come under water, the land surface or total amount of land is decreasing.34 The expression “eroding it from its extremities” in the above verses may well be pointing to coastal areas being covered by water.

A New York Times report on this subject reads:

Over the last century, the average surface temperature of the globe has risen by about 1 degree Fahrenheit, and the rate of warming has accelerated in the last quarter-century. That is a significant amount… Previous studies of satellite and submarine observations have seemed to establish a warming trend in the northern polar region and raise the possibility of a melting icecap. Scientists at the Goddard Space Science Institute, a NASA research center in Manhattan, compared data from submarines in the 1950’s and 1960’s with 1990’s observations, demonstrating that the ice cover over the entire Arctic basin has thinned by 45 percent. Satellite images have revealed that the extent of ice coverage has significantly shrunk in recent years.35

The findings made towards the end of the 20th century help us to understand the wisdom of Surat ar-Ra’d 41, and Surat al-Anbiya’ 44.


2. 8 minutes : Ultraviolet and x-ray emissions travelling at the speed of light can block out radio broadcasts.3. 30 minutes: Charged particles at a high energy level can threaten satellites and high-flying jets.

4. Between 48 minutes and 96 hours: The Earth’s magnetic field is disrupted by mass solar particles. The effect of this is to endanger electricity networks.

5. THE MAGNETOSPHERE is a region in space occupied by the Earth’s magnetic field. It usually extends for 64,000 kilometres (40,000 miles) towards the Sun, although powerful solar storms can compress the magnetosphere to a mere 42,000 kilometres (26,000 miles), leaving satellites outside exposed to solar winds.

This loss at the extremities, as revealed by Allah, may be understood in light of another scientific fact revealed in the Qur’an. The fact that the Earth, which revolves around its own axis, has a geoid shape, is a fact that has gained acceptance in recent centuries.


Research has revealed that the Earth keeps bulging at the equator.

Research has revealed that the equatorial diameter of the Earth expands under the effect of the force stemming from this rotation, and that it is compressed at its extremities, in other words the poles. Furthermore, since the Earth is in constant rotation this change continues to occur. Indeed, the term “nanqusu” in Surat ar-Ra’d 41, translated as “eroding,” shows that this process of erosion is an ongoing one.

It is the force of gravity that has given such celestial bodies as the Earth their spherical form. However, that shape is not exactly spherical; it flattens out somewhat at the poles and thickens at the equator. According to NASA figures, the radius of the Earth is 6,378.1 km (3,963.2 miles) at the equator but only 6,356.8 km (3,949.9 miles) from pole to pole.36 This is a difference of some 0.3%.

This model of the shape of the Earth was suggested by Sir Isaac Newton in 1687. This fact, revealed in the Qur’an 1,400 years ago, is another of its scientific miracles.

Caption: Research has revealed that the Earth keeps bulging at the equator.

Allah created the heavens and the earth with truth. There is certainly a Sign in that for the believers.
(Qur’an, 29:44)

THE SPLITTING EARTH

[I swear] by Heaven which returns and the earth which splits. (Qur’an, 86:11-12)

The Arabic word “sadA” in the above verse means “cracking, splitting apart.” Allah’s swearing by the splitting of the Earth points to an important phenomenon, as do the other scientific miracles in the Qur’an. Scientists first descended to the depths of the seas and oceans in order to study mineral resources in 1945-1946. One of the most important facts to emerge from that research was the fissured structure of the Earth. The rock layer on the external surface of the Earth was split by large numbers of cracks (faults), tens of thousands of kilometres long, running from north to south and east to west. Scientists also realised that there was molten magma under the sea, at depths of 100-150 km.

The above representative pictures show the fragmented structure of the Earth. The magma layer under the Earth’s crust is allowed to escape to the surface by this fragmented structure. This significantly reduces the temperature of the Earth.

Due to these splits and cracks, lava flows from volcanoes on the sea bed. Due to this fissured structure, a significant amount of heat is also given off, and a large part of molten rocks forms the mountains under the oceans. If the Earth did not possess this structure, which allows large amounts of heat to escape from its crust, life on Earth would become impossible.37


If the Earth’s surface did not permit high levels of heat to escape, life on Earth would be impossible.

There is no doubt that such information, which required such advanced technology to be discovered, being given 1,400 years ago is yet another proof that the Qur’an is the Word of Allah.

THE MIRACLE OF IRON

Iron is one of the elements highlighted in the Qur’an. In Surat al-Hadid, meaning Iron, we are informed:

And We also sent down iron in which there lies great force and which has many uses for mankind… (Qur’an, 57:25)

Iron ingot

The word “anzalna,” translated as “sent down” and used for iron in the verse, could be thought of having a metaphorical meaning to explain that iron has been given to benefit people. But, when we take into consideration the literal meaning of the word, which is, “being physically sent down from the sky,” as in the case of rain and Sun rays, we realize that this verse implies a very significant scientific miracle. Because, modern astronomical findings have disclosed that the iron found in our world has come from giant stars in outer space.38

Not only the iron on earth, but also the iron in the entire Solar System, comes from outer space, since the temperature in the Sun is inadequate for the formation of iron. The sun has a surface temperature of 6,000 degrees Celsius, and a core temperature of approximately 20 million degrees. Iron can only be produced in much larger stars than the Sun, where the temperature reaches a few hundred million degrees. When the amount of iron exceeds a certain level in a star, the star can no longer accommodate it, and it eventually explodes in what is called a “nova” or a “supernova.” These explosions make it possible for iron to be given off into space.39

One scientific source provides the following information on this subject:

There is also evidence for older supernova events: Enhanced levels of iron-60 in deep-sea sediments have been interpreted as indications that a supernova explosion occurred within 90 light-years of the sun about 5 million years ago. Iron-60 is a radioactive isotope of iron, formed in supernova explosions, which decays with a half life of 1.5 million years. An enhanced presence of this isotope in a geologic layer indicates the recent nucleosynthesis of elements nearby in space and their subsequent transport to the earth (perhaps as part of dust grains).40


Surat al-Hadid is the 57th in the Qur’an. The numerical value of the word “al-Hadid” in Arabic is 57. The numerical value of “hadid” on its own is 26. As can be seen from the periodic table to the side, 26 is the number of the iron atom. With the verse revealed in Surat al-Hadid Almighty Allah indicates how iron formed, and with the mathematical code contained in the verse He reveals to us a scientific miracle.

All this shows that iron did not form on the Earth, but was carried from Supernovas, and was “sent down,” as stated in the verse. It is clear that this fact could not have been known in the 7th century, when the Qur’an was revealed. Nevertheless, this fact is related in the Qur’an, the Word of Allah, Who encompasses all things in His infinite knowledge.

Astronomy has also revealed that other elements also formed outside the Earth. In the expression “We also sent down iron” in the verse, the word “also” may well be referring to that idea. However, the fact that the verse specifically mentions iron is quite astounding, considering that these discoveries were made at the end of the 20th century. In his book Nature’s Destiny, the well-known microbiologist Michael Denton emphasizes the importance of iron:

Of all the metals there is none more essential to life than iron. It is the accumulation of iron in the center of a star which triggers a supernova explosion and the subsequent scattering of the vital atoms of life throughout the cosmos. It was the drawing by gravity of iron atoms to the center of the primeval earth that generated the heat which caused the initial chemical differentiation of the earth, the outgassing of the early atmosphere, and ultimately the formation of the hydrosphere. It is molten iron in the center of the earth which, acting like a gigantic dynamo, generates the earth’s magnetic field, which in turn creates the Van Allen radiation belts that shield the earth’s surface from destructive high-energy- penetrating cosmic radiation and preserve the crucial ozone layer from cosmic ray destruction…

Without the iron atom, there would be no carbon-based life in the cosmos; no supernovae, no heating of the primitive earth, no atmosphere or hydrosphere. There would be no protective magnetic field, no Van Allen radiation belts, no ozone layer, no metal to make hemoglobin [in human blood], no metal to tame the reactivity of oxygen, and no oxidative metabolism.

The intriguing and intimate relationship between life and iron, between the red color of blood and the dying of some distant star, not only indicates the relevance of metals to biology but also the biocentricity of the cosmos…41

This account clearly indicates the importance of the iron atom. The fact that particular attention is drawn to iron in the Qur’an also emphasises the importance of the element. In addition, there is another hidden truth in the Qur’an which draws attention to the importance of iron: Surat al-Hadid 25, which refers to iron, contains two rather interesting mathematical codes.

“Al- Hadid” is the 57th sura in the Qur’an. The abjad of the word “Al-Hadid” in Arabic, when the numerological values of its letters are added up, is also 57. (For abjad calculations see the section on Numerological Calculations (Abjad) in the Qur’an.)

The numerological value of the word “hadid” alone is 26. And 26 is the atomic number of iron.

Moreover, iron oxide particles were used in a cancer treatment in recent months and positive developments were observed. A team led by Dr. Andreas Jordan, at the world famous Charité Hospital in Germany, succeeded in destroying cancer cells with this new technique developed for the treatment of cancer-magnetic fluid hyperthermia (high temperature magnetic liquid). As a result of this technique, first performed on the 26-year-old Nikolaus H., no new cancer cells were observed in the patient in the following three months.

This method of treatment can be summarised as follows:

1. A liquid containing iron oxide particles is injected into the tumour by means of a special syringe. These particles spread throughout the tumour cells. This liquid consists of thousands of millions of particles, 1,000 times smaller than the red blood corpuscles, of iron oxide in 1 cm3 that can easily flow through all blood vessels.42

2. The patient is then placed in a machine with a powerful magnetic field.

3. This magnetic field, applied externally, begins to set the iron particles in the tumour in motion. During this time the temperature in the tumour containing the iron oxide particles rises by up to 45 degrees.

In a few minutes the cancer cells, unable to protect themselves from the heat, are either weakened or destroyed. The tumour may then be completely eradicated with subsequent chemotherapy.
 43

In this treatment it is only the cancer cells that are affected by the magnetic field, since only they contain the iron oxide particles. The spread of this technique is a major development in the treatment of this potentially lethal disease. In the treatment of such a widespread disease as cancer, the use of the expression “iron in which there lies great force and which has many uses for mankind” (Qur’an, 57:25) in the Qur’an is particularly noteworthy. Indeed, in that verse, the Qur’an may be indicating the benefits of iron for human health. (Allah knows best.)

 
 

22. “The Quran and Modern Physics,” http://webhome. idirect.com/ ~alila/Writings/ Physics.htm23. “Inside the Earth,” http://pubs. usgs.gov/ publications/ text/inside. html.
24. http://www.wamy.co. uk/announcements 3.html, from an address by Prof. Zighloul Raghib El-Naggar.
25. Carolyn Sheets, Robert Gardner, and Samuel F. Howe, General Science (Newton, MA: Allyn and Bacon Inc.: 1985), 305.
26. http://www.beconvinced. com/science/ QURANMOUNTAIN. htm.
27. Frank Press, and Raymond Siever, Earth, 3rd ed. (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman & Company: 1982).
28. M. J. Selby, Earth’s Changing Surface (Oxford: Clarendon Press: 1985), 32.
29. Sheets, Gardner, and Howe, General Science, 305
30. Powers of Nature (Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society: 1978), 12-13.
31. “Press Release,” Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF), 9 March 2001, http://www.irf.se/press/ press_010309eng. html.
32. “Solar Wind Blows Some of Earth’s Atmosphere into Space,” NASA, http://science. nasa.gov/ newhome/headline s/ast08dec98_ 1.htm.
33. Ibid.
34. Kazi, 130 Evident Miracles in the Qur’an, 115.
35. John Noble Wilford, “Ages-Old Icecap at North Pole Is Now Liquid, Scientists Find,” New York Times, 19 August 2000, http://www.planetwaves. net/polar_ NYT.html.
36. http://nssdc. gsfc.nasa. gov/planetary/ factsheet/ earthfact. html.
37. “Arctic Explorers,” 23 June 2000, http://tea.rice. edu/schauer/ 6.23.2000. html; Tetsuzo Seno, Satoru Honda, “Mantle Convection and The Global Sea Level: When Did Plate Tectonics Begin on The Earth?,” http://www.eri.u-tokyo. ac.jp/seno/ sealevel_ abst.html; “Mantle Convection,” http://theory. uwinnipeg. ca/mod_tech/ node195.html; Prof. Zaghloul El-Naggar, “Scientific Signs in the Qur’an: Examples from the Area of Earth Sciences,” http://www.nekkah.com/ Main/EngPage/ Scientific_ Signs_in_ the_Quran. htm.
38. Kazi, 130 Evident Miracles in the Qur’an, 110-111; and http://www.wamy.co. uk/announcements 3.html, from Prof. Zighloul Raghib El-Naggar’s speech
39. Ibid.
40. Priscilla Frisch, “The Galactic Environment of the Sun,” American Scientist, January-February 2000, http://www.americanscienti st.org/template/ AssetDetail/ assetid/21173? fulltext= true.
41. Michael J. Denton, Nature’s Destiny (The Free Press: 1998), 198.
42. http://www.inm-gmbh. de/cgi-bin/ frame/frameloade r.pl?sprache= en&url=http://www. inm-gmbh. de/htdocs/ technologien/ highlights/ highlights_ en.htm.
43. “Nanotechnology successfully helps cancer therapies,” IIC Fast Track, Nanotech News from Eastern Germany, Industrial Investment Council, October 2003; http://www.iic.de/uploads/ media/NANO_ FT_Nov2003_ 01.pdf

When Ants Sense Danger

When Ants Sense Danger

 

WADEA Omrany notes a new scientific miracle in Surah Al-Naml (“Ants”), Verse number 18. This new miracle is about the scientific discovery that ants communicate with each other, especially when informing of impending danger.

God says what means in Surah Al-Naml: “At length, when they came to a (lowly) valley of ants, one of the ants said: ‘O ye ants, get into your habitations, lest Solomon and his hosts should crush you (under foot without knowing it).” (27:18)

The ant reported the imminent danger facing them in four successive stages as follow:

  • “O ye ants” – this is the first alarm given by the ant to draw the attention of the other ants quickly. On receiving this alarm, the other ants stand alert to receive the other signals given by the same speaker ant.
  • “Get into your habitations” – here the speaker ant follows up with another signal, ordering the ants to take the next step.
  • “Lest Solomon and his hosts should crush you” – in these words, the speaker ant shows the reason for this danger to her fellow ants.
  • “Without knowing it” – the ants, as a reaction to the previous alarms, will make a certain kind of defense, with these last few words. The ant shows its fellow ants that they don’t have to attack the source of danger because it is not from a real enemy; the danger doesn’t aim to attack the kingdom of ants since Solomon and his soldiers don’t know of the ants in their way.

Here’s what science says in this context.

Ants use chemical communication in situations of alarm and defence, when fast exchange of information is necessary, and when they face expected danger. This alarm is generally expressed by the emission of chemical signals. The protective glands are responsible for the roles of alarm and defence.

The Australian ant is a case in point. When these ants face danger, they secrete some droplets from their protective gland – so that their fellow ants run and make a vibration with their antennas showing that they are in state of alert.

The first substance detected by the ants is analdehyde hexanal. This draws their attention. As a result, they agitate and raise their antennae to search for other odors.

When they detect hexanol (the first message was in the form of alcohol), the ants go into a state of alert and run in all directions in search of the source of problem. When undécanone is emitted, it attracts the ants toward the source of danger and makes them bite all foreign objects in the anthill. Finally, when they come closer to the target, they discern the butyloctenal , which increases their aggression and their readiness to sacrifice themselves .

Chemical communication is the most important method of communication for ants. They give out different kinds of substances, each having a different code denoting a certain message.

These messages are the same as those of the ant in Surah Al-Naml Verse 18.

The substances that an ant gives out of its body in a situation like this are divided into four, with each substance having a certain language and code.

The successive scientific stages of the reaction of the ants are as follows:

  • aldéhyde hexanal is the first chemical substance that an ant emits if it senses danger. It is like a siren. On receiving this substance, ants begin to gather at one point where they remain alert and ready to receive the rest of signals. This identifies with the first phrase uttered by the ant in the holy verse “O ye ants.”
  • Then the ant emits the second chemical substance, hexanol. On receiving this substance, the ants begin to run in all directions to determine the source of this substance. The ant that emits the chemical substance should determine the way lest the rest of the ants stray elsewhere. And this is what the ant of Prophet Solomon did when it asked the other ants to enter their habitations by saying ” get into your habitations.” This is an instruction from the speaker ant to its fellows to go in the direction of the habitations. So, it must have determined the way and this is the same as directing the movement of ants in general.
  • Undécanone is the third substance that the ant emits.

This substance shows the cause of the danger, and that was what the ant did when it said in the third phrase “lest Solomon and his hosts should crush you (under foot).” In this stage, the ants that receive this substance get ready to face the impending danger.

  • In the fourth stage, the speaker ant emits butylocténal. This substance gives an order of defence and determines the kind of defence. And so it was said in the last phrase “without knowing it.” By doing so, the ant prevented the other ants from entering the stage of attack that would lead to death.

So Prophet Solomon smiled tenderly and mercifully as if saying they needn’t worry as he had seen them and would not allow any harm to befall them.

These scientific facts were mentioned in the Holy Qur’an more than 1,400 years ago.

Predictions in the Qur’an

PREDICTIONS IN THE QUR’AN

INTRODUCTION
THE VICTORY OF BYZANTIUM
THE PRESERVATION OF PHARAOH’S BODY
THE CONQUEST OF MAKKAH
THE TRIBE OF ISRAEL WILL BECOME VERY HAUGHTY
THE EXPLORATION OF SPACE
THE VOYAGE TO THE MOON
MODERN MEANS OF TRANSPORT
PLANE TECHNOLOGY
IMAGE TRANSMISSION
SMELL TRANSFERENCE
THE USE OF ELECTRICITY
ARTESIAN WELLS
THE ARMY-ANT IN TECHNOLOGY
ATOMIC ENERGY AND FISSION

INTRODUCTION

Another miraculous aspect of the Qur’an is its prediction of future events, all of which have so far been fulfilled. This is one of the proofs that the Qur’an is the Word of Allah. In the following pages, we will dwell on some of these events.

THE VICTORY OF BYZANTIUM

An astonishing prediction is found in the first verses of Surat ar-Rum, which refers to the Byzantine Empire, the eastern part of the later Roman Empire: The Byzantine Empire, which had met with a great defeat, would soon gain victory.

Alif, Lam, Mim. The Romans have been defeated in the lowest land, but after their defeat they will be victorious within three to nine years. The affair is Allah’s from beginning to end. (Qur’an, 30:1-4)

These verses were revealed around 620, almost 7 years after the idolatrous Persians had severely defeated Christian Byzantium in 613-14. In fact, Byzantium had suffered such heavy losses that it seemed impossible for it even to survive, let alone be victorious again. Following their defeat of the Byzantines at Antioch in 613, the Persians seized control of Damascus, Cilicia, Tarsus, Armenia, and Jerusalem. The loss of Jerusalem in 614 was particularly traumatic for the Byzantines, for the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was destroyed and the Persians seized the “True Cross,” the symbol of Christianity.174 In addition, the Avars, Slavs, and Lombards also were posing serious threats to the Byzantine Empire. The Avars had reached as far as the walls of Constantinople. Emperor Heraclius ordered the gold and silver in churches to be melted and turned into money in order to meet the army’s expenses. When this proved insufficient, bronze statues were melted down in order to mint more money. Many governors had revolted against Heraclius, and Byzantium was on the point of collapse.175 Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Armenia, which had earlier belonged to Byzantium, were invaded by the idolatrous Persians.176


The Dead Sea basin where Byzantium was defeated by Persians. Above is a satellite photograph of the region. The Lake of Lut region, which is the lowest region of the world, is 395 meter below the sea level.

In short, everyone was expecting Byzantium to be destroyed. But during this time, the first verses of Surat ar-Rum were revealed, announcing that Byzantium would triumph in 3 to 9 years. This predicted victory seemed so impossible that the Arab polytheists thought it would never come true.


On top a satellite photograph of the Dead Sea basin. The altitude of the Dead Sea could only be determined with modern measurement techniques. These measurements led to the discovery that this region is the “lowest region on the Earth.”

Like all the other predictions in the Qur’an, however, this one also came true. In 622, Heraclius gained a number of victories over the Persians and conquered Armenia.177 In December 627, the two empires fought a decisive battle at Nineveh, some 50 kilometres east of the Tigris river, near Baghdad. This time too, the Byzantine army defeated the Persians. A few months later, the Persians had to sue for peace with Byzantium, which obliged them to return the territories they had taken from it.178

The Byzantine victory was completed when Emperor Heraclius defeated the Persian ruler Khosrow II in 630, recaptured Jerusalem, and regained the “True Cross” for the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.179 In the end, “the victory of the Romans” proclaimed by Allah in the Qur’an miraculously came true within the verses’ stated “three to nine years” time frame.

Another miracle revealed in these verses is the announcement of a geographical fact that could not have been known by anyone at that time: that the Romans had been defeated in the lowest region of Earth. This Arabic expression adna al-Ard is interpreted as “a nearby place” in many translations. However, this is not the literal meaning, but rather a figurative interpretation. The word adna, derived from the word dani (low), means ?the lowest?. The word ard means ?the world.? Therefore, adna al-ard means “the lowest place on Earth.”

Some interpreters of the Qur’an, considering the closeness of the region in question to the Arabs, prefer the “closest” meaning of the word. However, the actual meaning indicates a very important geological fact: The Dead Sea, one of the regions in which the Byzantines were defeated in 613-14, is the lowest region on Earth.180

As stated earlier, for Christian Byzantium, the loss of the True Cross was the heaviest blow in that defeat in Jerusalem, located near the shores of the Dead Sea.

The Byzantines and the Persians actually fought at the Dead Sea basin, which is situated at the intersection point of the lands belonging to Syria, Palestine, and Jordan. At 399 meters below sea level, the Dead Sea is the “lowest” place on Earth’s surface.181

However, as only modern measuring methods and equipment can prove this fact, it would have been impossible for anyone living at that time to realise this truth. Yet, the Qur’an states clearly that this region was the “lowest land” on Earth and thereby provides further evidence that it is the Word of Allah.

THE PRESERVATION OF PHARAOH’S BODY

As we shall see later on, Pharaoh regarded himself as a deity and responded with slanders and threats to Prophet Musa’s (as) calls for him to believe in Allah. This arrogant attitude lasted until he was faced with the threat of death through drowning. The Qur’an relates that Pharaoh immediately turned to belief when faced with Allah’s punishment:

We brought the tribe of Israel across the sea, and Pharaoh and his troops pursued them out of tyranny and enmity. Then, when he was on the point of drowning, he [Pharaoh] said: “I believe that there is no god but Him in Whom the tribe of Israel believes. I am one of the Muslims.” (Qur’an, 10:90)

However, this last-minute conversion was not accepted, for it was not sincere. According to the Qur’an, Allah exclaimed:

“What, now! When previously you rebelled and were one of the corrupters? Today we will preserve your body so you can be a Sign for people who come after you. Surely many people are heedless of Our Signs.” (Qur’an, 10:91-92)

The information that Pharaoh’s corpse would serve as a sign for later generations may be regarded as an indication that his body would not decay. On display in the Royal Mummies Chamber of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo is a mummified body believed to be that of this tyrant. In all likelihood, Pharaoh’s body floated to shore after being drowned, was found and mummified by the Egyptians, and then carried to a previously prepared burial chamber.182

THE CONQUEST OF MAKKAH

Allah has confirmed His Messenger’s vision with truth: You will enter the Masjid al-Haram [Sacred Mosque] in safety, Allah willing, shaving your heads and cutting your hair without any fear. He knew what you did not know and ordained, in place of this, an imminent victory. (Qur’an, 48:27)

One night in Madinah, the Prophet (saas) dreamed that the believers would enter the Sacred Mosque and walk around the Ka`bah. After he awoke, he gave this good news to the believers, for those who had migrated from Makkah to Madinah with him had not been able to return since.

In Surat al-Fath 27, Allah revealed to the Prophet (saas) that He would help and support him, that the dream was true, and that the believers would enter Makkah. A short while later, with the Treaty of Hudaybiyah and the conquest of Makkah, the believers entered the Sacred Mosque in complete safety, just as the dream had foretold. That was how Allah showed that it had been His will that the Prophet’s (saas) dream be fulfilled.

On closer consideration, this verse can be seen to announce yet another victory that will take place before Makkah’s capture: the capture of the Khyber Fortress, which was under the control of the Jews, before they entered Makkah.183

Other verses that give the glad tidings of Makkah’s conquest are given below:

He held their hands back from you, and your hands from them in the valley of Makkah, after giving you the upper hand over them. Allah sees what you do. (Qur’an, 48:24)

Truly We have granted you a clear victory, so that Allah may forgive you your earlier errors and any later ones, complete His blessing upon you, and guide you on a Straight Path. And so that Allah may help you with a mighty help. (Qur’an, 48:1-3)

Surat al-Isra’ 76 states that the unbelievers cannot stay in Makkah:

They were very near to scaring you from the land with the object of expelling you from it. But had they done so, they would only have remained there a short time after you. (Qur’an, 17:76)

The Prophet (saas) entered Makkah and conquered it in 8 ah (630). Two years later, all of the unbelievers left Makkah, just as Allah had said that they would. Another point that should be noted here is that when the Prophet (saas) gave that good news to the believers, it looked totally out of the question. In fact, the situation pointed in quite the opposite direction, and the polytheists appeared quite determined never to let the believers enter Makkah. As a result, those who had doubts in their hearts began to doubt the Prophet’s (saas) words. Yet, the Prophet (saas) trusted in Allah, paid no attention to the doubters’ words, and told people what Allah had revealed to him. The Qur’an confirmed his words, and the prediction was fulfilled shortly afterwards.

THE TRIBE OF ISRAEL WILL BECOME VERY HAUGHTY

We decreed in the Book for the tribe of Israel: “You will twice cause corruption on Earth and you will reach [a degree of] great haughtiness. When the promised first time came, We sent against you servants of Ours possessing great force, and they ransacked your houses, rampaging right through them. It was a promise that was fulfilled. Then once again We gave you the upper hand over them, supplied you with more wealth and children, and made you the most numerous group.” (Qur’an, 17:4-6)

As these verses reveal, the Children of Israel were to cause two corruptions over the world. After the first one, during which they adopted a very high level of haughtiness, Allah sent a powerful army against them. Indeed, when the Jews killed Prophet Yahya (as) and set a trap to kill Prophet ‘Isa (as) (“reaching to a degree of great haughtiness” ), they were exiled shortly afterwards from Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 and wandered all over the world.

When that verse was revealed to the Prophet (saas), the Jews were living under very difficult conditions in various countries and had no state of their own. Yet, Allah told the Children of Israel that one day they would recover their strength. At that time, however, there seemed to be almost no chance that this would really happen. Many centuries later, however, the Jews returned to Palestine and established the State of Israel in 1948. Today, Israel possesses military and political power and keeps the Middle East in great turmoil because of its Zionist ideology and harsh treatment of Palestinian Muslims and Christians.

This is a sign of the Children of Israel’s second “corruption. ” However, this wicked behaviour clearly does not apply to the entire Jewish people, among whom there are many individuals of good conscience and common sense who do not agree with Israel’s Zionist and anti-Arab policies.

In this and other verses, we notice that almost no one could believe that such things would ever come about. But Allah willed their fulfilment, and thereby provided believers with more proof that the Qur’an is a miraculous book revealed by Him for their benefit.

THE EXPLORATION OF SPACE

Humanity’s exploration of space was accelerated with the Soviet satellite Sputnik on 4 October 1957, which carried aloft the first man to ever leave Earth’s atmosphere: Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. On 20 July 1969, the American astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first human being ever to set foot on the Moon.

In fact, the Qur’an revealed that such developments and achievements would one day be realised. For instance, Allah draws our attention to this in the following verse:

O company of jinn and human beings. If you are able to pierce through the confines of the heavens and Earth, pierce through them. You will not pierce through, except with a clear authority. (Qur’an, 55:33)

The Arabic word sultan, translated here as “a clear authority,” has other meanings as well: force, power, sovereignty, dominion, law, path, permission, give leave, justify, and proof.

Careful examination reveals that the above verse emphasizes that humanity will be able to move into the depths of Earth and sky, but only with a superior power. In all likelihood, this superior power is the superior technology employed in the twentieth century, for it enabled scientists to achieve this great feat.

THE VOYAGE TO THE MOON

And [I swear by] the moon when it is full, you will mount up stage by stage! What is the matter with them, that they have no faith? (Qur’an, 84:18-20)

After referring to the Moon, the above verses then say that people will mount up stage by stage. The term tarkabunna comes from the verb rakiba, (to mount, walk on a path, follow, embark upon, set about, participate, or rule). In the light of these meanings, it is very likely that the expression “you will mount up stage by stage” refers to a vehicle to be boarded.

Indeed, the astronauts’ spacecraft pass through each layer of the atmosphere one by one, and then begin to pass through the Moon’s gravitational field. Thus, the Moon is reached by moving through individual layers. In addition, the swearing by the Moon in Surat al-Inshiqaq 18 further strengthens this emphasis, meaning that the verse may well be a sign that humanity will travel to the Moon. (Allah knows best.)

MODERN MEANS OF TRANSPORT

And horses, mules, and donkeys both to ride and for adornment. And He creates other things you do not know. (Qur’an, 16:8)

The above verse indicates that in addition to the animals mentioned here, people will have various unknown (to them) means of transport. The following verse points to the fact that there will be such mass modes of transport as ships:

A Sign for them is that We carried their families in the laden ship. And We have created for them the like of it, in which they sail. (Qur’an, 36:41-42)

PLANE TECHNOLOGY

And to Sulayman We gave the fiercely blowing wind, speeding at his command toward the land that We had blessed. And We had full knowledge of everything. (Qur’an, 21:81)

As the above verse relates, Allah placed the wind under Prophet Sulayman’s (as) command and allowed him to use it as a vehicle. There is a strong possibility of an indication here that, as in Prophet Sulayman’s (as) time, wind energy will also be used in the technology of the future.

And We gave Sulayman power over the wind-a month’s journey in the morning and a month in the afternoon… (Qur’an, 34:12)

The expression “a month’s journey in the morning and a month in the afternoon” may be drawing attention to the fact that Prophet Sulayman (as) moved rapidly between different regions perhaps by using a technology similar to an airplane, or developed wind-powered vehicles that could cover long distances quickly. (Allah knows best.) There is thus a strong possibility that these verses point to modern airplane technology.

IMAGE TRANSMISSION

He who possessed knowledge of the Book said: “I will bring it [the Queen of Saba’s throne] to you before your glance returns to you.” And when he [Sulayman] saw it standing firmly in his presence, he said: “This is part of my Lord’s favour, to test me to see if I will give thanks or show ingratitude. ” (Qur’an, 27:40)


[He is] the Originator of the heavens and earth. When He decides on something, He just says to it, ?Be!? and it is.
(Qur?an, 2:117)

“He who possessed knowledge of the Book” told Prophet Sulayman (as) that he could bring the Queen of Saba’s throne to him very quickly. This is a possible reference to the transmission of images with present-day advanced technology. Another verse on the subject reads:

A demon of the jinn said: “I will bring it to you before you get up from your seat. I am strong and trustworthy enough to do it.” (Qur’an, 27:39)

In our day, text, pictures, and films can be sent anywhere in the world in a matter of seconds, thanks to the Internet and advances in computer technology. For instance, carrying the Queen’s throne to Prophet Sulayman’s (as) court very quickly may well refer to the fact that it will be possible to send a three-dimensional picture or image in the blink of an eye over the Internet.

According to scientists, the teleportation of atoms and molecules, as well as larger bodies, may become possible in the near future. By this method, the item’s material characteristics are removed from one location and transferred in every detail and atomic sequence to another location, where they are reconstructed. If this technology becomes operational one day, time and space will no longer represent an obstacle to travel and objects will be able to be transported anywhere in a single moment without traversing any physical distance.184

In 1998, physicists at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) working with two European groups transported a photon. The scientists formed a copy of the photon by reading its atomic structure and then transmitted that information a distance of 1 metre. In another recent teleportation experiment, Ping Koy Lam of the Australian National University (ANU) and other researchers transmitted a laser ray a short distance.185

Indeed, according to a CNN report on 17 July 2002, a group of physicists from the National Australian University in Canberra split a laser ray and “transmitted” it several metres. Ping Koy Lam, the team’s head, stated that they had not yet succeeded in transmitting matter in its atomic state, but that such a thing was not impossible and may become a reality in the future.

According to a study published in the science journal Nature, Eugene Polzik of Denmark’s University of Aarhus, and his colleagues performed successful experiments on a large number of atoms, using laser rays and quantum physics.186 In his analyses of teleportation’ s potential, published in the journal Scientific American, Australian physicist Anton Zeilinger states that far more complex systems could be teleported without violating the laws of physics.187

As the Qur’an reveals in “We will show them Our Signs on the horizon and within themselves until it is clear to them that it is the truth” (Qur’an, 41:53), these scientific advances may represent a part of the technologies indicated in the Qur’an, all of which reveal its miraculous aspects.

SMELL TRANSFERENCE

He [Yusuf] said: “No blame at all will fall on you. Today you have forgiveness from Allah. He is the Most Merciful of the merciful. Go with this shirt of mine and cast it on my father’s face, and he will see again. Then come to me with all your families.” And when the caravan went on its way, their father said: “I can smell Yusuf’s scent! You probably think I have become senile.” (Qur’an, 12:92-94)

Today, scientists state that teleporting atoms and scent molecules may be possible in the near future. In Surah Yusuf 94, Prophet Yusuf’s (as) father says that he can smell his son’s scent. Scientists also say that it will soon be possible to send scents in the same way as pictures and three-dimensional images are sent. Therefore, this verse might be a sign of an advanced technology developing from the current research into transmitting scent.

Like our other sense perceptions, smell forms in the brain. For example, a lemon peel’s molecules stimulate the nose’s scent receptors, which then transmit them in the form of electrical signals to the brain for analysis. Therefore, when the scent’s signal is artificially formed in another form, the scent can be perceived in the same form. Indeed, the “electronic nose” is one of the research areas showing that this may well be possible in the near future.

A human being’s scent perception system makes it possible for a trained nose to name and distinguish some 10,000 odours. Professionals in the perfumery business who have received special chemical training are able to sniff a scent that contains 100 different odorants and then list the ingredients.188 This superior creation in the human nose has encouraged many scientists to design similar equipment. Efforts are underway in various research and development centres to replicate this human scent perception system. The models developed on this basis are termed “the electronic nose.”

The human nose’s receptors are composed of proteins; those in its electronic counterpart are composed of a series of chemical receptors. Each receptor is designed to detect different odours; the more their distinguishing capacities are enhanced, the more difficult production becomes and the greater the cost. The signals collected by the sensors are turned into binary codes, by means of electronic systems, and then sent to a computer. The electronic systems can be thought of as imitating the nerve cells responsible for scent detection, and the computer as the brain. The computer is programmed to analyse the data and thus interprets the binary code signals.

Electronic noses are currently being used in the food, perfumery, and chemical industries, as well as in medicine. Universities and international organizations are also providing major support for such projects. Nevertheless, as stated by Julian W. Gardner of the University of Warwick, researchers are still in the early stages of this technology.189

THE USE OF ELECTRICITY

And We made a fount of molten copper flow out for him. (Qur’an, 34:12)

One of Allah’s great blessings to Prophet Sulayman (as) was “a fount of molten copper.” This can be understood in several senses. By the use of melted copper, it may be referring to the existence, at his time, of an advanced technology that employed electricity. We know that copper is one of the best metals for conducting electricity and heat, and thus constitutes the basis of the electrical industry, which uses much of the copper produced in the world. The expression “flow out” may indicate that electricity can be used in many fields. (Allah knows best.)

ARTESIAN WELLS

We divided them up into twelve tribes-communities. We revealed to Musa, when his people asked him for water: “Strike the rock with your staff.” Twelve fountains flowed out from it, and all the people knew their drinking place. And We shaded them with clouds and sent down manna and quails to them: “Eat of the good things We have provided for you.” They did not wrong Us; rather, they wronged themselves. (Qur’an, 7:160)


A closed artesian aquifer is confined by an overlying impermeable body of rock, which prevents any water from filtering down into the aquifer. Instead, water enters the tilted aquifer layer through a recharge area, where the aquifer rock is exposed at higher elevations. The flow in an artesian aquifer resembles water flowing through a J-shaped tube. Water added on the tube?s long side provides enough pressure to drive the water upward on the tube?s shorter side.

The above verse describes how Prophet Musa’s (as) people asked him for water and how he provided places where each tribe could drink. Clearly, his people were suffering from a shortage of water. Such shortages still exist, for more than 1 billion people today lack access to clean water, and 2.4 billion still live without improved sanitation. According to projected estimates, by 2025 about 5 billion people will not have access to sufficient amounts of water.190 Every year, some 12 million people die from water scarcity; 3 million of whom are children who die from waterborne diseases.191

Today, 31 countries, comprising 8 percent of the world’s population, face chronic freshwater shortages. By 2025, this number is expected to rise to 48 countries.192 According to UN predictions, renewable freshwater will become an even more limited resource by 2025, and the number of 131 million people experiencing water problems will rise to either 817 million (according to low population growth projections) or 1.079 billion (according to high population growth projections) .193

Groundwater, the largest source of fresh water on Earth, represents more than 90 percent of the readily available freshwater reserves194 and is therefore of vital importance to meeting the water needs of up to 2 billion people.195 It constitutes the primary source of water for up to 50 percent of the American population, a figure that rises to 95 percent in rural areas.196 Groundwater is also the safest and most reliable source of fresh water. At the same time, this water can be used to produce geothermal energy and save energy by using heat pumps.

When the water sucked up from the soil meets an impermeable underground layer, it collects there and forms a water source. This water is then brought to the surface by the artesian method. Artesian springs are formed by sedimentary rocks that can store underground water.

The fact that artesian wells are drilled in rocky areas runs parallel to the description in the Qur’an. Given that Allah commanded Prophet Musa (as) to strike the rock, Surat al-A`raf 160 may be indicating this method. (Allah knows best.) The verb idrib, translated as “strike,” can also mean “to raise, to open.” Thus, this verse may be describing a water source being opened by the raising of the rock. As a result, pressurized water may have emerged, as described in the verb inbajasat (to pour out, flow freely, bubble up, flow), just as happens with artesian wells. If sufficient pressure forms, water can continue to flow to the surface without the need for a pump.

Allah is He Who created the heavens and the earth and sends down water from the sky and by it brings forth fruits as provision for you? (Qur?an, 14:32)

It is particularly striking that current solutions for dealing with water scarcity use underground water resources. In fact, one of the most effective methods of doing so is the artesian well. In other words, we might be copying Prophet Musa’s (as) example of striking or lifting the rock without even knowing it. Surat al-A`raf 160 may therefore be a reference to artesian wells, the first of which was opened in 1126 in the French region of Artois. (Allah knows best.)

THE ARMY-ANT IN TECHNOLOGY

Then, when they reached the Valley of the Ants, an ant said: “Ants! Enter your dwellings, so that Sulayman and his troops do not crush you unwittingly. ” (Qur’an, 27:18)

The “Valley of the Ants” refers to a special place and special ants. In addition, the fact that Prophet Sulayman (as) could hear the ants talking among themselves may contain striking references to future developments in computer technology. The present-day term “Silicon Valley” refers to the centre of the world of technology. It is most significant that a “valley of the ants” appears in the account of Prophet Sulayman’s (as) life. Allah may be drawing our attention to the advanced technology of the future.

Furthermore, ants and other insect species are widely used in advanced technology as models in robot projects and are intended to serve in a wide range of areas, from the defence industry to technology. The verse may also be referring to these developments.

Latest Developments in Miniature Technology: Army-Ant Robots

The best known project using ants as a model are the “Army-Ant Robot” projects being carried out independently in several countries. One study being carried out by the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and Virginia State University seeks to develop small, inexpensive, and simple physically identical robots that can be used as a robot army. Project officials explain these robots’ functionality in the following terms: “The way they behave as a group, in a coordinated manner, perform a series of physical actions, and take joint decisions.” These robot armies’ mechanical and electrical designs have been based on the behaviour of an ant community. They are called the “army-ant” robots because of their similarities to their insect counterparts.

The “army-ant” robot system was originally designed as a “material-carrying system.” According to this scenario, several small robots would be charged with jointly lifting and carrying objects. It was later decided that they could be used for other tasks. One report describes other tasks to which they might be assigned in the future:

Nuclear and hazardous waste cleanup with robotic “swarms,” mining (including material removal and search-and-rescue) , mine sweeping (both land and water), surveillance and sentry, planetary surface exploration and excavation.197

In a report by Israel A. Wagner, an expert on ant robot technology, the ant robot projects were described in these terms:

Ant-robots are simple physical or virtual creatures designed to cooperate in order to achieve a common goal. They are assumed to have very limited resources of energy, sensing and computing, and to communicate via traces left in the workspace or on the ground, like many insects naturally do?

The distribution of work among multiple a(ge)nts can be made by either a central controller who sends orders to the agents, or by an a-priori agreement on a certain partitioning that, if obeyed by the agents, eventually leads to a completion of the given mission. A third way, used throughout the current work, is to design the behavior of individuals such that cooperation will naturally emerge in the course of their work, without making a-priori decisions on the structure of the cooperation. The specific application that we address is covering, which is also known as exploring or searching. This variety of names hints to the many applications this problem might have: from cleaning the floor of a house to mapping an unknown planet or demining a mine field.198

As can be seen in these examples, an ant’s social lifestyle forms the basis of many projects, and the various ant-based robot technologies are providing benefits for human beings. That is why it is so important that ants and their valley are referred to in the Qur’anic account of Prophet Sulayman’s (as) life. The term “ants” in the verse may refer to an army consisting of robots, future developments in robot technology, and how robots will play an important role in human life. For example, they may perform many arduous tasks and thus make people’s lives more comfortable. (Allah knows best.)

ATOMIC ENERGY AND FISSION

Allah splits the seed and kernel. He brings forth the living from the dead, and produces the dead out of the living. That is Allah, so how are you misguided? (Qur’an, 6:95)

The terms “seed” (al-habb) and “kernel” (an-nawa) in the above verse may indicate the splitting of the atom. Indeed, the dictionary meanings of an-nawa include “nucleus, centre, atomic nucleus.” Furthermore, the description of bringing forth the living from the dead can be interpreted as Allah creating matter from dead energy. Producing the dead out of the living may refer to energy (dead) emerging from matter (living), since the atom is in motion. (Allah knows best.) That is because as well as “living,” al-hayy can also mean “active, energetic.” With its meaning of “non-living, ” al-mayyit, translated above as “dead,” may very probably refer to energy.

Scientists define energy as the capacity for doing work. Matter, the material that comprises all things on Earth and in the universe, consists of atoms and molecules that can be seen to be in motion under an electron microscope. In the early twentieth century, Albert Einstein (d. 1955) theorised that matter could be converted into energy, suggesting that the two were inter-related at the atomic level.199 This may be the bringing forth of the dead from the living, as described above, or, in other words, obtaining energy from matter, which is in motion at the atomic level. In addition, yukhriju, translated as “bringing forth,” also means “bringing out, emitting” (as in the case of electrical waves). Therefore, the terms in this verse may be indicating the form of energy obtained from the atom. (Allah knows best.)


Today, atomic nucleus can be split into smaller nuclei by means of nuclear fission.

Scientists can now split the atom by dividing its nucleus. Taking Einstein’s theories as their starting point, they obtained energy from matter in the 1940s by means of nuclear fission, the process of splitting the atomic nucleus. The verb faliqu in Surat al-An`am 95, translated as “to split,” may be a reference to fission’s dictionary meaning: the process of splitting (the atom’s nucleus). When this process takes place, enormous amounts of energy are released.

The words in Surat al-An`am 95 are very wise in terms of their meanings. The phenomena described in this verse bear a very close resemblance to the splitting of the atom’s nucleus in order to obtain atomic energy. The verse may therefore be a reference to nuclear fission, which was only made possible by twentieth-century technology. (Allah knows best.)

 
 

174. http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Heraclius.
175. Warren Treadgold, A History of the Byzantine State and Society (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press: 1997), 287-99.
176. Ibid.
177. http://fstav. freeservers. com/emperors/ heraclius. html.
178. Treadgold, A History, 287-99.
179. http://web.genie. it/utenti/ i/inanna/ livello2- i/mediterraneo- 1-i.htm; http://impearls. blogspot. com/2003_ 12_07_impearls_ archive.html; and http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Heraclius.
180. ?The Lowest Part on the Face of the Earth,?www.beconvin c ed.com/science/ QURANLOWEST. htm.
181. ?Dead Sea,? World Book Encyclopedia, 2003, Contributor: Bernard Reich, Ph.D., Professor of Political Science and International Affairs, George Washington University
182. ?Archaeology, ? http://www.angelfire. com/az/miracles/ Archaeology. html.
183. Imam Taberi, Taberi Tefsiri (Commentary of AT-TabAri) (Istanbul: Umit Yayincilik), 5:2276.
184. Anil Ananthaswamy, “Teleporting larger objects becomes real possibility, ” New Scientist, 6 February 2002.
185. Dr. David Whitehouse, BBC News Online, 17 June 2002.
186. Atom Experiment Brings Teleportation a Step Closer,” Reuters, 26 September 2001, http://www.space.com/ businesstechnolo gy/technology/ quantum_teleport ation_010926. html.
187. James Schultz, ?Teleporting, the Quantum Way,? Space News, 12 October 2000.
188. Elise Hancock, “A Primer on Smell,” Johns Hopkins Magazine, September 1996.
189. Mia Schmiedeskamp, “Plenty To Sniff At,” Scientific American, March 2001, http://www.sciam.com/ 2001/0301issue/ 0301techbus1. html.
190. ?Climate Change Adding Stress to Scarce Water Resources,? DevNews Media Center, 5 June 2003, http://web.worldban k.org/WBSITE/ EXTERNAL/ NEWS/0,,contentM DK:20114416~ menuPK:34457~ pagePK:34370~ piPK:34424~ theSite
PK:4607,00.html.
191. ?Water?The Essence of Life,? DevNews Media Center, 17 May 2002, http://web.worldban k.org/WBSITE/ EXTERNAL/ NEWS/0,,contentM DK:20044610~ menuPK:34459~ pagePK:64003015~ piPK:64003012~
theSitePK:4607, 00.html.
192. ?Solutions for a Water-Short World,? http://www.infoforhealth. org/pr/m14edsum. shtml.
193. ?Water-Scarce Countries,? excerpted from Sustaining Water: Population and the Future of Renewable Water Supplies, http://www.cnie.org/ pop/pai/water- 14.html.
194. ?Creation of an International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre (INGRACE) ? an information note,? IAH (International Association of Hydrogeologists) News and Information Online, http://www.iah.org/ articles/ mar2000/art002. htm.
195. ?Groundwater, ? http://ap.world. water-forum3. com/themeWwf/ en/themeShow. do?id=36.
196. ?The Importance of Groundwater, ? http://pasture. ecn.purdue. edu/~agenhtml/ agen521/epadir/ grndwtr/importan ce.html.
197. John S. Bay, ?Design of the ?Army Ant? Cooperative Lifting Robot,? http://armyant. ee.vt.edu/ paper/robo_ mag.html.
198. Israel A. Wagner, ?My Travels With my A(u)nts: Distributed Ant Robotics,? http://www.cs.technion. ac.il/~wagner/ pub/thesis_ abs_eng.html.
199. ?Energy and Matter,? Fundamentals of Physical Geography, http://www.physicalgeograp hy.net/fundament als/6a.html.

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